Risk Factors Of Asthma
Although it cant be said for sure what causes asthma in some people and not in others, however, there can be some triggers. One of the reasons for asthma can be being exposed to elements such as:
- Airborne allergens such as pollen or dust mites
- Respiratory infections such as common cold
Additionally, youll be at a greater risk for asthma if:
- Youre overweight
- You have a family history of asthma
- You get exposed to passive smoking
- You have any form of allergy
- You are exposed to fumes and other types of pollutants
- You are exposed to harmful substances at work such as chemicals
Now that youre aware of the causes of bronchial asthma, lets look at the asthma symptoms and treatment.
When To Visit Your Doctor
Even a well-managed CVA could escalate into a dangerous incident. It would be best if you visit your doctor immediately when you observe the following signs:
You feel weak, dizzy, or out of breath.
You have trouble performing daily tasks such as cooking and cleaning.
You notice that your cough is not ending.
Your wheezing becomes worse even after taking your medication.
Respond faster when you witness the following signs as it may be an emergency:
Your nails or lips turn blue.
Your nostrils start flaring when you breathe in.
You start taking more than 30 breaths per minute.
Walking and talking becomes difficult.
The skin at the base of your throat stretches when you breathe in.
Types Of Asthma That Might Completely Surprise You
If one of the questions at your next trivia night is about types of asthma, youre in luck. You probably already know of what many people see as regular asthma, like the kind that might go haywire when youre exposed to allergens that bother your respiratory system. But, like many health conditions, there are different variations of asthma, including some youve probably never heard of before.
All types of asthma follow the same general process, Raymond Casciari, M.D., a pulmonologist at St. Joseph Hospital in Orange, California, tells SELF. Asthma impacts your airways, which extend between your nose and mouth to your lungs, according to the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute . Your airways can get inflamed in response to triggers, and the swelling can cause the surrounding muscles to tighten, restricting your air intake even more. In this instance, your airways may also create more mucus than they usually do, which typically makes it even harder to breathe.
Though different types of asthma have that same overarching M.O., they can each flare up for different reasons. Here are a few surprising types of asthma to keep on your radar.
If youve got a persistent coughone that lasts for over eight weeks, as it can with cough-variant asthmayoull want to see your doctor.
Anyone can develop occupational asthma, but the U.S. National Library of Medicine says these people are at the greatest risk:
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Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness May Predict Cough
The study found that cough severity and cough-related quality of life were not related to the severity of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in nonsmoking adults with cough-variant asthma.
Due to its high positive predictive value , bronchial hyperresponsiveness could be considered as a predictor of cough-variant asthma in nonsmoking adults with chronic cough, a study published in Respiratory Research found.
The study found that cough severity and cough-related quality of life were not related to the severity of BHR in patients with CVA, which is a common cause of CC instead, BHR had a high PPV for establishing a diagnosis of CVA in this population.
To the best of our knowledge, there have been no previous studies on the response to anti-asthmatic therapy in CC adults with BHR, the study authors wrote. High PPV of BHR in CVA diagnosing in our study suggests that CVA should be considered as a major cause of cough in patients with CC presenting with BHR.
CVA is a phenotype of asthma, characterized by BHRincreased sensitivity to a wide variety of airway-narrowing stimuliand cough as primary symptoms.
This prospective, single-center, observational included 55 patients with CC and confirmed BHR, although only 49 patients completed the entire study. The study was performed in the Department of Internal Medicine, Pulmonary Diseases, and Allergy of the Medical University of Warsaw between 2016 and 2020.
The inclusion criteria were as follows:
Viral Asthma And Coronavirus
Of course, the concerns asthma sufferers confront every fall and winter are magnified this year due to the risk of Covid-19. The coronavirus pandemic is of special concern to those with asthma for a few reasons, including:
- A person with asthma may be at greater risk for getting seriously ill if they contract Covid-19
- Another fast-spreading virus in the mix during cold and flu season increases the chances of catching something that may aggravate asthma
- Asthma sufferers with respiratory symptoms may have a difficult time discerning whether theyre sick with a virus or simply experiencing a flare-up
That means its all the more important for someone who has been diagnosed with asthma to take precautions to avoid Covid-19 and to get tested as soon as possible if Covid-like symptoms appear.
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Cough And Airway Remodeling: A Possible Link
We aimed to investigate whether repeated cough itself induces airway remodeling and heightened CRS by using conscious guinea pigs in vivo . Cough was induced by repeated exposure to 0.5 M citric acid thrice weekly for 3 weeks , which is unlikely to induce tachyphylaxis. We set two control groups: one given saline , and the other given CA with pretreatment with an antitussive dextromethorphan according to the same protocol as CA group . Average cough number for 10 CA exposures was evaluated as âcough indexâ in the CA group, which was divided into frequent cough and infrequent cough subgroups for BAL and pathology analysis of day 25. The number of coughs significantly increased in the CA group from day 13 onwards, but not in the SA or CA + DEX groups. Among various histologic changes, ASM area of small airways was significantly greater in the CA-F subgroup than in the other three groups , and correlated with cough index in CA group . BAL cell profiles were similar among the four groups. We concluded that repeated cough induces ASM remodeling in the absence of inflammation. It was associated with heightened CRS, leading to a positive feedback mechanism for cough persistence .
Figure 5tFigure 6Figure 7
Respiratory Viral Infections As A Risk Factor For Asthma Development: Mechanisms Involved
Different mechanisms have been suggested to be involved in the initiation or exacerbation of asthma as a consequence of respiratory viral infections. Although the severity and the outcomes of a respiratory viral infection depend on factors such as the host immune system or environmental aspects, it has been observed that respiratory viral infections can induce per se immunological changes and morphological alterations that can contribute to the initiation or aggravation of asthmatic processes . Infections produced by respiratory viruses such as RSV or RV are characterized by airways inflammation and tissue remodelling that could have an impact on the initiation of asthmatic processes.
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What Does Treatment Look Like
Treatment for a winter asthma attack usually begins with a short-acting inhaler, which may contain albuterol. Next, the patient should seek shelter in a warmer environment to start breathing warmer air as fast as possible. If the symptoms arent relieved by these actions, and the cold-induced asthma returns often, a doctor may prescribe longer-term treatments. These may include leukotriene receptor inhibitors or long-acting beta agonists. Inhaled corticosteroids may also be an option.
Why Do They Exist
The sole purpose of a viruss existence is to invade a cell and replicate. Due to their simple structures, they dont have the means of hunting for cells to invade. For this reason, when they come into contact with a cell they like, its merely a coincidence. So, its not like they are out and about hunting for respiratory cells to invade.
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Surprising Signs Of Adult
This post is available in: Spanish
That persistent cough that keeps you up at night may stem from more than just a tickle in the back of your throat. It could be adult-onset asthma.
Many people experience a jolt of disbelief when they are diagnosed with asthma later in life, especially if they have never experienced symptoms before. Asthma? That condition that causes kids to wheeze?
It turns out adult-onset asthma is far more common than many people realize. Asthma is often considered a disease of children, so adults may be surprised when they are diagnosed with asthma, says pulmonologist Javier PÃ©rez-FernÃ¡ndez, M.D., the critical care director at Baptist Hospital of Miami.
The number of people with asthma grows every year. Currently, more than 26 million Americans have asthma, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Of those cases, more than 20 million are among adults, with the greatest number of cases among ages 35 and 65.
Asthma is a chronic inflammation of the lung airways that can lead to coughing, chest tightness, shortness of breath or wheezing. Among adults who develop asthma later in life, the symptoms may initially be more subtle than in children, which can cause patients to overlook or ignore the condition. But its important to treat symptoms as soon as possible so they dont become severe, said Dr. PÃ©rez-FernÃ¡ndez, who also serves as director of pulmonology for West Kendall Baptist Hospital.
Clinical And Physiological Features And Treatment Of Cva
CVA or asthma has consistently been one of the most common cause of chronic cough worldwide, together with GERD and upper airway cough syndrome. In Japan, CVA is the leading cause followed by GERD and sinobronchial syndrome , while one study from Poland showed a marked predominance of GERD followed by upper airway cough syndrome, probably indicating a regional or racial difference .
The prevalence of atopy in CVA, as defined by the presence of at least one positive serum specific IgE or skin test response to common aeroallergens, ranges from 40% to 80% , similarly to classic asthma. Interestingly, in a follow-up study of patients regularly visiting our clinic of Kyoto University for more than 2 years, repeated seasonal exacerbations in a specific season were more common in CVA than in classic asthma . Patients with CVA had seasonal exacerbations more frequently in autumn season than those with classic asthma . The latter phenomenon in CVA was associated with sensitization to housedust-mite .
Figure 1Figure 2
Like in asthma, airway remodeling changes such as subepithelial basement membrane thickening, goblet cell hyperplasia and vascular proliferation by mucosal biopsy, and airway wall thickening on CT images, have been demonstrated .
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Asthma Development: Allergy Features
In a cross-sectional comparison of the characteristics of 115 classic asthma and 74 CVA patients, the two groups of asthmatics were sensitized to one or more allergens at a similar prevalence. However, patients with classic asthma had greater age, disease duration, smoking prevalence and airflow obstruction, and higher blood eosinophils, total IgE, numbers of sensitized allergens, and rates of sensitization to dog dander , HDM , and moulds than did patients with CVA. No specific antigen of CVA with higher sensitization rate than classic asthma was found .
Forty CVA patients from this original cohort were prospectively observed for 2 years to determine whether CVA would progress to classic asthma despite ICS treatment. Asthma developed in six patients with CVA , who had lower FEV1, larger number of sensitized allergens and higher rates of sensitization to HDM and dog dander than the remainders without wheezing development .
Another cross-sectional study of a more recent larger cohort from the same laboratory showed very consistent results , confirming the importance of sensitization to HDM and animal dander, for the presentation as classic asthma rather than CVA.
As summarized in Table 7, factors that may predict the development of classical asthma include AHR , exaggerated maximal airway response to methacholine, sputum eosinophilia, allergen sensitization and failure to use ICS .
Narrative Review: How Long Should Patients With Cough Variant Asthma Or Non
Department of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Clinical Immunology , , Japan
Keywords: Cough variant asthma non-asthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis eosinophilic airway inflammation airway remodeling chronic cough long-term treatment
Submitted May 24, 2020. Accepted for publication Feb 08, 2021.
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Summary Of The Findings:
A total of 42 Original Articless addressing the identification of respiratory viruses during episodes of asthma exacerbation were selected, mostly cross-sectional studies. There was a wide variation in the methodology of the assessed studies, particularly in relation to the childrens age and methods of collection and viral detection. The results indicate that, in up to 92.2% of exacerbations, a viral agent was potentially the main triggering factor, and human rhinovirus was the most frequently identified factor. The pattern of viral circulation may have been responsible for the seasonality of exacerbations. The association between viral infections and allergic inflammation appears to be crucial for the clinical and functional uncontrolled asthma, but few studies have evaluated other triggering factors in association with viral infection.
What Makes Yale Medicines Approach To Pediatric Asthma Unique
The Pediatric Asthma Program at Yale Medicine brings all aspects of a childs care team together, ensuring that each patient receives individualized attention and the best possible treatment. Patients are seen by specialists with extensive experience in asthma and related conditions, and also meet with registered nurses who are certified asthma educators. All details of the visit are communicated back to the childs primary care provider.
The nurse educators spend time with each family at the end of their visit and go through proper use of medications, show them how to use their inhalers, and give them advice on controlling environmental factors, Dr. Bazzy-Asaad says. If a child has certain allergies, for example, theyll talk about how to avoid those triggers.
Pediatricians working with the Asthma Program regularly collaborate with experts in other departments, too. If theres a situation that doesnt seem like straightforward asthma, its very easy for us to work with other specialists to get to the bottom of the problem more quickly, Dr. Bazzy-Asaad says.
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Assessing Ios Measures As Predictors Of Di Index
When assessing the IOS measures as predictors of DI-index, we attempted to adjust for age, sex, height, BMI, spirometry measures, and lung volume measures. The correlations for the variables are summarized in Supplementary Table S1. The first five principal components of these 22 variables had eigenvalues 1.0 and collectively explained 85% of the variance in these 22 variables and 32% of the variance in the DI-index . For comparison, age, sex, height, and weight collectively explained 18% of the variance in the DI-index.
Table 5 provides the Pearson correlations between IOS measures and the DI index. After controlling for the five PCs described above, the partial correlations ranged from 0.28 for log up to 0.59 for log . All the partial correlations except R20 had a false discover rate < 5%. Although the estimated magnitudes of the unadjusted Pearson correlations were clinically meaningful, they were consistently smaller than the partial correlations and generally not statistically significant.
Table 5. Correlation between impulse oscillometry and DI .
Without adjustment for other covariates, the six IOS variables explained 33% of the variance in the DI index . After controlling for the five PCs, the selection method described in the Supplementary Methods retained log and log from the six IOS variables.
What Causes Cough Variant Asthma
We do not know the cause of CVA. CVA may be a step in the progression from atopic dermatitis to other allergic conditions, including classic asthma. This “atopic march” happens when a childs immune system progressively identifies new foreign substances as harmful.3
This theory is based on the fact that CVA is an early sign of classic asthma. About 30 percent of people with CVA go on to develop classic asthma. CVA is also more likely than classic asthma to go away on its own.4
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What Can Trigger Cold
There are two factors involved in the causes of cold-induced asthma: cold and dry air. Inhaling either or both can cause airways to tighten. This can produce spasms and coughing, which can result in an asthma attack.
Exercise can also sometimes be to blame, as we tend to breathe more through our mouths when we exercise, yet our noses do a better job of warming air before it reaches our lungs.
Prevention Of Asthma Coughing
Preventing an asthma cough can be done in a few simple steps. If you are typically coughing more at night, it may be beneficial to place a humidifier in your bedroom. If the air outside is bothering you, then it is best to limit time outdoors. If allergens are the trigger of asthma, then it is essential to also treat the
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How Asthma Is Treated
While there is no cure for asthma, there are a number of treatments that can help control the condition.
Treatment is based on two important goals, which are:
- relieving symptoms
- preventing future symptoms and attacks
For most people, this will involve the occasional or, more commonly, daily use of medications, usually taken using an inhaler. However, identifying and avoiding possible triggers is also important.
You should have a personal asthma action plan agreed with your doctor or nurse that includes information about the medicines you need to take, how to recognise when your symptoms are getting worse, and what steps to take when they do so.
These symptoms are often worse at night and early in the morning, particularly if the condition is not well controlled. They may also develop or become worse in response to a certain trigger, such as exercise or exposure to an allergen.
Read our page on the causes of asthma for more information about potential triggers.
Speak to your GP if you think you or your child may have asthma. You should also talk to your doctor or asthma nurse if you have been diagnosed with asthma and you are finding it difficult to control the symptoms.