How Are Antihistamines Classified
Antihistamines are divided into two major subtypes. The first subtype is called H-1 receptor antagonists or H-1 blockers. This subtype of antihistamines is used to treat allergy symptoms. The second subtype is called H-2 receptor antagonists or H-2 blockers. They are used to treat gastrointestinal conditions, including gastroesophageal reflux disease , peptic ulcers, gastritis, motion sickness, nausea and vomiting. The naming structure tells doctors and scientists the cell type the location of the histamine receptor that the antihistamine medication blocks.
The H-1 blocker subtype is further broken down into two groups first-generation antihistamines and second-generation antihistamines.
Itchy Runny Nose From Allergies: Causes Symptoms And Relief
An itchy nose can be really irritating, especially when it leads to a runny nose and sneezing at inconvenient times. Whether youre in the office, relaxing at home or driving somewhere, its never ideal.
But what causes it?
When exposed to foreign substances, your nose produces extra mucus to trap and keep the substances out of the lungs. When this happens, that mucus can irritate your airways and lead to an itchy, runny nose1.
In fact, some of the main nasal symptoms you may experience due to nose allergies can include2.
- Runny nose and sneezing
- Stuffy, congested nose
Such symptoms are common signs of hay fever also known as seasonal allergic rhinitis. As this affects around one in five Americans3, youre far from alone if youve experienced it.
Understand more about the causes, symptoms and itchy nose relief available with ZYRTEC® today.
How Should I Use Zyrtec
Zyrtec is taken by mouth.
Use Zyrtec exactly as directed on the label, or as prescribed by your doctor.
Older adults may need to take a lower than normal dose. Follow your doctor’s instructions.
You may take this medicine with or without food.
Do not swallow the Zyrtec orally disintegrating tablet whole. Allow the tablet to dissolve in your mouth without chewing. Swallow several times as the tablet dissolves. If desired, you may drink liquid to help swallow the dissolved tablet.
Measure liquid Zyrtec Syrup carefully. Use the dosing syringe provided, or use a medicine dose-measuring device .
Store at room temperature away from moisture and heat. Do not allow liquid medicine to freeze.
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Does Cetirizine Make You Drowsy
Cetirizine is classed as a non-drowsy antihistamine, but it does make some people drowsy. In clinical trials, this side effect appeared to be related to the dose of cetirizine, with higher dosages increasing the risk of feeling drowsy. 1.9% of children aged 6 to 11 years experienced drowsiness with 5mg of cetirizine and 4.2% of children experienced drowsiness with 10mg of cetirizine. Up to 14.3% of adults may be affected by drowsiness with cetirizine.
What Are Cetirizine And Loratadine
Cetirizine is a non-sedating . It is similar to other second-generation antihistamines including loratadine , and . Histamine is a chemical responsible for many of the signs and symptoms of allergic reactions such as swelling of the lining of the nose, sneezing, and eyes. Certirizine blocks one type of receptor for histamine and prevents activation of H1 receptor-containing cells by histamine. Unlike first generation antihistamines, cetirizine and other second-generation antihistamines do not readily enter the brain from the blood so they cause less drowsiness though cetirizine may cause more drowsiness than other second-generation antihistamines.
Loratadine is a long-acting, non-sedating antihistamine used to treat . Loratadine blocks one type of histamine receptor and thus prevents activation of cells with H1 receptors by histamine. Unlike some antihistamines, loratadine does not enter the brain from the blood and does not cause drowsiness when taken at recommended doses.
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Seasonal Allergies And Copd: Tips To Avoid Complications
Seasonal allergies are a nuisance for most people. For people with COPD, however, any extra condition that makes breathing difficult is automatically more serious.
According to a 2012 study at the Johns Hopkins Allergy and Asthma Center, people who had COPD and seasonal allergies experienced worsened respiratory symptoms such as coughing and wheezing.
They were also significantly more likely to need medical attention for their symptoms.
The condition results in airway blockages and mucus production, often causing serious breathing difficulties. Symptoms include:
- persistent cough
- feeling winded after activities that werent difficult in the past
- coughing up mucus
Seasonal allergies are very common. Millions of people deal with the itchy, watery eyes and stuffy noses that seasonal allergies cause.
These symptoms occur when your immune system reacts to allergens youve inhaled such as:
Your immune system activates certain cells that produce substances, including histamine. These substances produce allergy symptoms.
People with COPD seem to be more sensitive to other breathing conditions. Of course, if you have COPD, you likely already have some trouble breathing.
Can I Take Antihistamines If Im Pregnant Or Breastfeeding
Its safest to talk to your healthcare provider if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant or are breastfeeding. Animal studies have shown that some antihistamines can cause birth defects. Small amounts of antihistamines pass on to your baby if you breastfeed. For these reasons your healthcare provider will want to talk with you and make careful choices if there is any concern for your or your childs safety.
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Help My Cat Has Allergies: Is Zyrtec Safe For Cats
Your Cats Allergies: Diagnosis, Treatments, and Beyond
Cats are notorious for hiding illnesses, but allergy symptoms might be the easiest for you to uncover.
When we think about allergies and cats, its usually about humans. Your cat can have allergies to common irritants, foods, and the seasonal type too.
Each type of allergy has its methods for diagnosis that either you or your veterinarian can assess.
Learn the signs, differences, and treatments to help your kitty cope with their allergies.
Say Goodbye To Springtime Allergies
Topics in this Post
Spring is in the air. Warmer temperatures mean that trees bud, flowers bloom, grass grows and animals get more active. People do, too. But for some, spring means handfuls of tissues and a heavy dose of misery in the form of sneezing, watery eyes and stuffy noses.
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Question: How Do I Choose An Over
Dr. James: For many years, people used diphenhydramine as an antihistamine for their allergies. But for many reasons, this medicine is not a good choice to take for allergy symptoms because of its short-term action to manage symptoms and several known negative side effects. The major side effects of diphenhydramine include drowsiness, sedation, and fatigue. It can also impair alertness, concentration, multitasking, and memory. In turn, this antihistamine can affect important functions, such as learning and test performance in children, as well as operation of machinery and cars in adults.
Diphenhydramine and related short-acting antihistamines should be avoided.
Fortunately, there are many newer over-the-counter antihistamines available that work much better, are longer acting, and are safer than diphenhydramine. These newer antihistamines are less likely to have major clinical side effects compared to older antihistamines like diphenhydramine. Also, these newer medicines do not carry the risk of toxicity and death that has been associated with older antihistamines. Finally, regarding the use of antihistamines in pregnancy, cetirizine and loratadine are the medicines of choice.
Important note: If you are experiencing symptoms of a severe allergic reaction known as anaphylaxis, the recommended treatment is epinephrine .
We Have Multiple Cats But Only One Has Food Allergies
Not every cat will have the same allergies or allergies period. However, in a multi-cat household, you should feed all of the cats the same food and treats if possible.
Otherwise, you might need to feed your non-allergic cats in an area off-limits to your cat with food allergies.
Some cats have severe allergies to the point where breathing in the allergen will trigger a response. In multiple pet households, this can pose a real threat.
One of our staff has a dog with severe food allergies, for example. He cant have chicken, turkey, pork, beef, wheat, corn, soy, eggs, or rice. When she adopted a cat, she had to feed the cat a similar ingredient diet to avoid triggering her dogs allergies.
It doesnt take much either to set off their allergies, so cross contamination is a real concern for your kittys overall wellbeing.
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How Long After Taking Cetirizine Can I Drink Alcohol
It is best to wait until cetirizine completely leaves your body before you drink alcohol, which may take up to 40 hours . This is because alcohol can increase the nervous system side effects of cetirizine such as dizziness, drowsiness, and difficulty concentrating. Some people may also find it difficult to think or make good judgements. This calculation is based on the half-life of cetirizine, which is 8.3 hours, and experts say it takes 4 to 5 half-lives for a drug to fully leave your body which works out to 33 to 40 hours.
Question: Which Is Better A Nebulizer Or An Asthma Inhaler
Dr. James: The delivery of asthma medicines by the inhaler route or with a nebulizer can be equally effective if you use them correctly and as directed. First, there are many types of asthma inhaler devices that deliver medicine, including metered dose inhalers, dry powder inhalers, and breath activated inhalers. For these to work well, you must use them correctly. Your doctor should give you step-by-step instructions. Your doctor should watch you use your inhaler to assure the best technique.
A nebulizer machine turns liquid asthma medicine into a mist, which is breathed into your lungs using a mouthpiece or mask. It is also known as a breathing machine, and they are prescribed by doctors, along with the asthma medicine you use in them. Nebulizers are relatively easy to use once you learn how.
In summary, if used correctly and as directed, asthma medicines delivered by inhalers and/or nebulizers can be equally effective in managing asthma symptoms.
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Be Smart Be Aware Of Allergy Medication Side Effects
Smart use of allergy medications knowing how they treat symptoms, being aware of potential unwanted side effects and, most important, monitoring their effect on you and your health is just one step toward controlling allergy and cold symptoms. Even more important: knowing what you are allergic to and taking steps to prevent or reduce exposure.
If your allergy symptoms tend to last longer than two weeks or are not adequately controlled with over-the-counter medications, schedule an appointment with a board-certified allergist for a full diagnosis.
Antihistamines and intranasal corticosteroids are intended for symptom relief. If antihistamines or intranasal corticosteroids are causing side effects such as drowsiness or other problems, there are other treatment options your doctor can offer you, such as allergen immunotherapy.
Reviewed by Dennis Williams, PharmD
8229 Boone Blvd, Suite 260,Vienna, VA 22182
What Is Immunotherapy
Specific allergen immunotherapy is an effective treatment for allergic rhinitis in some people and can achieve lasting relief from symptoms.
Your doctor might suggest immunotherapy if your allergic rhinitis is mainly due to one allergen that you cannot avoid. It can only be prescribed by an allergy specialist.
Treatment must be continued for 35 years.
Oral and injectable forms of immunotherapy are available in Australia. Oral immunotherapy involves daily treatment at home. Injectable immunotherapy involves weekly to monthly injections. Side effects can occur, but serious allergic reactions are rare. It is unsafe for people with severe or poorly controlled asthma.
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Who Can Take Zyrtec
Zyrtec can be taken by most healthy individuals who are at least 6 months old and have never had an allergic reaction to Zyrtec or any medication including the generic form, cetirizine HCl.
Talk to your healthcare provider before taking Zyrtec if you are pregnant. Animal studies have shown no risk to fetuses, but controlled human studies are lacking.
It is generally recommended that you not take Zyrtec while breastfeeding.
Tell your healthcare provider about any medications you are taking before starting Zyrtec, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, nutritional supplements, and herbal products.
Does Using Zyrtec For My Cats Allergies Really Have No Side Effects
According to VcaHospitals, Many veterinarians and studies show there are fewer side effects with Zyrtec than other available antihistamines on the market in the treatment of allergies. Sleepiness is common in cats with higher doses.
According to the National Center for Biotechnology Information, This study on nine cats reported zero side effects.
How Can I Avoid Serious Complications
The best thing you can do is to avoid potential allergens.
Allergens are all around us, but you already have a head start if you know your triggers. You can take steps now to reduce your contact with specific allergens that worsen your symptoms.
Read on for tips on avoiding common allergens that could make your COPD symptoms worse.
Are Cats That Should Avoid Zyrtec
Yes, some cats shouldnt take it unless your veterinarian says its okay.
Avoid using Zyrtec:
- Seizures or seizure disorder
- Difficulty using the bathroom
If your cat currently takes medications and/or supplements, you should also contact your veterinarian to avoid drug interactions.
Currently, Zyrtec and drugs affecting the central nervous system can cause issues. Some cats take certain types of drugs to combat anxiety and stress, which fall under that category.
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Do Antihistamines Help Allergic Asthma
If you are someone who frequently suffers from nasal congestion, itchiness, or other allergy symptoms, youve probably heard the term antihistamine thrown around. They are commonly used for people with allergies, but are they useful for people with allergic asthma?
Allergic AsthmaWhen you have allergies combined with asthma, you most likely have the most common form of asthma called allergic asthma. People with this condition experience asthma symptoms like trouble breathing when they are exposed to something they are allergic to.
AntihistaminesAntihistamines are medications that help stop symptoms caused by histamines. For some people, exposure to normally benign substances like pet dander or pollen can trigger an allergic reaction. During an allergic reaction, your immune system fights against the perceived threat by releasing a substance called histamines. Histamines are what cause the symptoms associated with allergies like sneezing, congestion, and itchiness.
Antihistamine UsesAntihistamines are generally used for the treatment or prevention of nasal allergy symptoms like congestion, sneezing, and a runny nose. They help with both seasonal and year-round allergies and can provide relief from other allergic conditions like hives.
Allergy TreatmentIn addition to taking antihistamines, you should try to avoid any irritants that trigger your allergies. The most common allergens are mould, dust, pets, and pollen.
Do Antihistamines Cause Dementia
Long term use of some antihistamines may increase your risk of dementia. Diphenhydramine blocks the effects of a neurotransmitter called acetylcholine. This neurotransmitter is vital for memory and learning. Diphenhydramine increased the risk of dementia by 54% in one 3,000 patient study followed for seven years.
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How Antihistamines Work
Your body has four different types of histamine receptors on your cells. Receptors are like communication pathways that allow signaling from outside the cell to the inside of the cell. These four histamine receptors allow the body to communicate important information to the cells of your body to maintain healthy functioning.
Histamines cause the following things to occur:
- Contraction of smooth muscles
Antihistamines are medications that block the communication pathway between the body and the cell by occupying the space that the histamines would have used to signal the cell. Antihistamines therefore prevent swelling, pain activation, itchiness, redness, and smooth muscle contraction from occurring. As such, antihistamines can be useful in treating:
You should know that while antihistamines can treat the above conditions, they may not be the preferred or safest option. For example, antihistamines are not the best option for treating anaphylaxis and bronchoconstriction.
What Did Fda Find
We reviewed case reports submitted to FDA*, conducted an observational study using data from the FDAâs Sentinel System, and reviewed observational and animal studies in the published literature. Given the available information, we also reevaluated the benefits and risks of use of montelukast.
We continue to receive reports of mental health side effects reported with montelukast use. Consistent with our prior evaluations, a wide variety of mental health side effects have been reported, including completed suicides. Some occurred during montelukast treatment and resolved after stopping the medicine. Other reports indicated that mental health side effects developed or continued after stopping montelukast. The Sentinel study, which studied asthma patients 6 years and older, and other observational studies did not find an increased risk of mental health side effects with montelukast compared to inhaled corticosteroids . However, the Sentinel study and the observational studies had some limitations which may affect how we interpret the results. We also reviewed animal studies, which showed that montelukast given orally reaches the brain in rats.1
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Our Response To Covid
At Johnson & Johnson Consumer Health, we are committed to helping individuals and communities around the world manage the unprecedented impacts of COVID-19. As COVID-19 strains healthcare resources globally, it is more important than ever to help people stay healthy and out of a stressed healthcare system.
Our teams are actively working to maintain production of high-demand consumer health products, including ZYRTECÂ® brand products. ZYRTECÂ® is in high demand, with many parts of the country experiencing high pollen levels, and we are prioritizing the continued production of high-demand products to maintain supply, all while ensuring the highest level of quality and safety.
4/5asthmaasthmamore on it
Antihistamines work well to prevent or relieve allergic symptoms in the eyes and nose. Unfortunately, they have little effect on asthmatic symptoms. It turns out that histamine is only one of many chemicals that can cause narrowing of the bronchial tubes, and antihistamines leave these other chemicals unopposed.
what is the best treatment for allergic asthma? There are many good asthma treatments, but most require a prescription. These medications include inhaled steroids, which fight inflammation, and bronchodilators, which open up your airways. If traditional treatments dont help your allergic asthma, Xolair, an injectable medication that reduces IgE levels, may help.
Furthermore, which antihistamine is best for asthma?
What medications should be avoided with asthma?