Conditions Related To Asthma
Asthma can be associated with several other conditions and health problems. In some cases, asthma can increase the likelihood of certain illnesses, like:
Additionally, there are some illnesses and health conditions that appear to be linked to asthma in that people with one are more likely to have the other, like:
Learn about common asthma symptoms and treatments and a lot more from one of the countrys preeminent medical institutions. You can also connect with Mayo Clinic doctors and clinicians for treatment options.
General Shellfish Repiratory Risks
Crab processing is also associated with the use of chemicals that may cause respiratory symptoms in processing workers. These chemicals include sulphites, which are applied to raw crab products destined for the Japanese market, and some cleaning chemicals. More research is needed on the extent and context for the use of these chemicals in snow crab processing and their potential role in causing respiratory symptoms in processing workers.
A third possible contributor to respiratory problems among snow crab processing workers that has not been studied extensively is exposure to endotoxins. Endotoxins are part of the outer membrane of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria which live on crab. They can produce symptoms . A fourth risk is exposure to fumes from diesel and propane forklifts.
Effect Of Nasal Allergen Exposure On Lower Airways
Nasal allergen challenge increases eosinophils and adhesion molecules in both nasal and bronchial biopsy specimens from nonasthmatic patients with rhinitis . Chakir and colleagues also showed that natural pollen exposure is associated with an increase in lymphocyte numbers, eosinophil recruitment, and IL-5 expression in the bronchial mucosa of nonasthmatic persons with allergic rhinitis . In another study, Chakir and colleagues showed that allergic nonasthmatic patients with seasonal pollen-induced rhinitis had airway pathologic changes similar to those observed in asthmatic patients . These changes consisted of cellular infiltration, mucosal edema, increased epithelial desquamation, and focal basement-membrane thickening.
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Treatment For Occupational Asthma
Treatment for occupational asthma usually includes avoiding thesubstance that triggers the asthma attack or symptoms. Persons withoccupational asthma should also avoid inhaling gases, such as chlorine,or nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide, as these substances can makeasthma symptoms more severe. Other treatment may include medications tocontrol the asthma. If the occupational asthma is advanced, treatmentmay also include:
What Are The Common Treatment Options For Asthma
Long-term control and prevention are key methods to stop asthma attacks before they start. Treatment usually involves recognizing and avoiding the triggers as much as possible.;
There is currently no cure for asthma, but treatment can help control the symptoms, so patients may be able to live a normal, active life. The following are treatments commonly used for asthma.
- Inhalers: This may relieve symptoms when they occur and stop symptoms developing . Some people need an inhaler that does both . The inhalers are generally beta-agonists such as salbutamol, salmeterol or a combination of beta-agonist and steroid.
- Tablets: Patients may also need to take tablets if using an inhaler alone is not helping control their symptoms.
- Leukotriene receptor antagonists : LTRAs are the main tablets used for asthma. They also come in the syrup and powder form.
- Theophylline: Theophylline may also be recommended if other treatments are not helping to control the symptoms.
- Steroid tablets: Steroid tablets may be recommended if patients are unable to take any of the above medications to control the symptoms. They may be given as an immediate treatment or every day or as a long-term treatment to prevent the symptoms.
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Bipoc Communities And Asthma
The causes driving these disparities are multifactorial.
Journal of Clinical Asthma and Immunology American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
“Poverty, exposure to pollution, and limited access to medical care play a big role in racial disparities in asthma,” says Kenneth Mendez, AAFA’s president and CEO.
“These factors are interrelated and intergenerational, he explains. Discriminatory housing policies, for example, have caused long-lasting residential segregation, in which poverty is concentrated in Black and Hispanic communities, which then perpetuates a cycle of limited access to education, employment, and quality healthcare services, he says. This residential segregation is also responsible for the disproportionate proximity of minority populations to sources of pollution, such as industrial centers, major roadways, oil and gas refineries, distribution hubs, and traffic-related pollution, which can put people at higher risk for asthma and having worse outcomes, Mendez explains.
Treatments To Help Allergies And Asthma
Most treatments target either asthma or allergies. Some methods specifically treat symptoms related to allergic asthma.
- Montelukast is a medication primarily prescribed for asthma that can help with both allergy and asthma symptoms. Its taken as a daily pill and helps to control your bodys immune reaction.
- Allergy shots work by introducing small amounts of the allergen into your body. This allows your immune system to build up tolerance. This approach is also called immunotherapy. It usually requires a series of regular injections over several years. The optimal number of years has not been determined, but most people receive injections for at least three years.
- Anti-immunoglobulin E immunotherapy targets the chemical signals that cause the allergic reaction in the first place. Its usually only recommended for people with moderate to severe persistent asthma, for whom standard therapy has not worked. An example of anti-IgE therapy is omalizumab .
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How Are Both Types Diagnosed
Even though extrinsic and intrinsic asthmas have the same major symptoms, the diagnosis and treatment stages do differ for both conditions. In order to identify intrinsic asthma, your doctor will have to order a lung X-ray and blood work in addition to a thorough physical examination. Sometimes your physician will also want to perform a spirometry, peak flow, or lung function tests in order to figure out more details about your condition. After that, your doctor will have to perform an analysis on what factor cause your non-allergic asthma. When it comes to diagnosing extrinsic asthma, your physician will likely order all of the abovementioned tests as well as a skin prick test, to see what your body perceives as an allergen.;
Types Of Severe Asthma
There are two main categories of severe asthma Type-2 inflammation and Non-Type-2 inflammation. These categories are based on a persons response to treatment. Type-2 inflammation includes allergic asthma and eosinophilic asthma and Non-Type-2 inflammation includes non-eosinophilic asthma. For example, allergic asthma and e-asthma respond to treatment with inhaled corticosteroids and IgE -directed therapy or other biologics listed in the above table. Patients with Non-Type-2 inflammation, including non-eosinophilic asthma, generally do not respond well to inhaled corticosteroids. Allergic asthma and e-asthma have distinct biomarkers and treatment options available today. Treatments for non-eosinophilic asthma are currently being development.
Allergic asthma is caused by exposure to allergens such as pollen, pet dander, molds, etc. Most people diagnosed with allergic asthma will also have a diagnosis of hay fever or rhinitis. For these patients, exposure to allergens causes the bodys immune system to produce immunoglobulin E, an antibody that attaches to certain cells and causes them to release chemicals creating an allergic reaction. When this happens, common symptoms are sneezing, itchy/watery eyes, severe allergic reactions , and increased airway sensitivity.
Non-eosinophilic asthma includes neutrophilic, smooth-muscle mediated and mixed cells. People in this subgroup have few to no eosinophils in test results, and do not respond well to inhaled corticosteroids.
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Patients Dependent On Oral Glucocorticoids
These individuals should be referred to a specialist. The goal is the lowest possible oral glucocorticoid dose for the shortest possible duration. Patients must be screened and then referred or treated for complications, such as cataracts and osteoporosis .
Excluding problems that can mimic asthma, such as VCD in “refractory” glucocorticoid-dependent cases, is important. A truncated inspiratory flow-volume loop on pulmonary function tests suggests possible VCD with corroboratory adduction of the vocal cords during inspiration.
Allergic Rhinitis Airway Hyperresponsiveness And Asthma
It is well established that 40% of nonasthmatic patients with allergic rhinitis have increased airway hyperresponsiveness . Allergen nasal challenge or seasonal allergen exposure leads to increased airway hyperresponsiveness in rhinitis patients . The number of eosinophils in the sputum correlates with nonspecific airway hyperresponsiveness not only in asthma but also in allergic seasonal rhinitis . Nasal eosinophilia correlates with bronchial reactivity in allergic children who have both asthma and rhinitis . Gaga and colleagues found eosinophilic infiltration in the nasal mucosa of asthmatic patients even in the absence of rhinitis . The relationship between nasal allergy and asymptomatic airway hyperresponsiveness supports the concept of one airway, one disease.
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What Are Symptoms Of Asthma
Symptoms of asthma include:
- Come and go over time;
- Start or worsen with viral infections, such as a cold
- Can be triggered by allergies, exercise, cold air, or;hyperventilation;from laughing or crying
- Worsen at night or in the morning
Asthma attacks describe episodes when symptoms worsen significantly and require a change in usual treatment. Asthma attacks may have a gradual or sudden onset and can be life-threatening.;
Avoid Your Allergic Asthma Triggers
When pollen counts are high, stay inside as much as possible. Keep the windows closed. If you have an air conditioner, use it to filter the air.
To keep dust mites out, wrap your pillows, mattress, and box springs in allergen-proof covers. Wash your sheets once a week in hot water.
Get rid of items where dust can gather, such as on heavy curtains or piles of clothing. If your child has allergic asthma, only buy washable stuffed animals. Remove wall-to-wall carpeting, if possible.
If moisture is a problem in your home, get a dehumidifier to cut down on mold. Repair any plumbing leaks.
If you have pets, keep them out of the bedroom.
Keep your kitchen and bathroom very clean to avoid mold and cockroaches.
Be careful doing outside work. Gardening and raking can stir up pollen and mold.
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Why Dont I Have Symptoms All The Time
Everyone has their own unique combination of allergic triggers and not all of them are obvious. In fact, the majority of people with allergiesup to 80 percentare allergic to multiple things.9 You may experience mild reactions to several allergens, but they are so small that you dont notice them on their own. But when you encounter multiple things you are allergic to at the same time, all of those small reactions can add up to the point where you start experiencing asthma symptoms.
Determining if you have allergies and identifying your allergic triggers can help you stay below the point where you start having allergic asthma symptoms your symptom threshold. It has been shown that reducing exposure to confirmed allergy triggers can have a significant impact on the ability to control asthma10 with fewer symptoms, fewer hospital visits, and improved quality of life.11,12
How Is Each Asthma Type Treated
After your doctor identifies the influencing factor contributing to your intrinsic asthma, recommendations for your specific triggers have to be made. These can include changes to your environment, nutrition, and lifestyle. Additionally, you may be prescribed various medications, including antibiotics and steroids, that are aimed at your infection and inflammation. If your asthma is triggered by stress or anxiety, psychological counseling may be required to treat your non-allergic asthma.
Extrinsic asthma treatment is usually a tandem treatment approach and often consists of treatment for your asthma as well as your allergies. Asthma treatment will involve medications to reduce the inflammation which weve described above. At the same time, allergy treatment will depend on the allergen you are reacting to, as well as the severity of the symptoms. Note that some corrections in your nutrition and lifestyle can also be required, in addition to traditional allergy medicine.
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Who Can Get Asthma
Anyone can develop asthma at any age. People with allergies or people exposed to tobacco smoke and secondhand smoke are more likely to develop asthma.
Statistics show women tend to have asthma more than men, and asthma affects Black Americans more frequently than other races.
When a child develops asthma, healthcare providers call it childhood asthma. If it develops later in life, its adult-onset asthma.
Children do not outgrow asthma. They may have fewer symptoms as they get older, but they could still have an asthma attack. Your childs healthcare provider can help you understand the risks.
What Are The Signs
Most of the signs of allergic asthma and the non-allergic form are the same such as:
- Chest tightness
- Chronic coughing
- Shortness of breath
These symptoms can be triggered by dust mites, tobacco smoke, cockroaches, animal dander, pollen and mold.
Upon exposure to these triggers, a complex reaction starts which results to the manifestation of the asthma symptoms.
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Your Employers Responsibilities To You
Under the Health Safety at Work Act 1974 employers must minimise any exposure to hazardous substances in the workplace.
If your work involves you having contact with allergens or irritants:
- risks should be explained to you before you start work
- you should have a health check, including a breathing test, when you start employment
- you should have health checks every year, to make sure youre not developing asthma
- your employer should notifiy HSE if you develop occupational asthma.
Most employers will do what they can to help. If you dont think that they are doing enough, you could try:
- talking to your health and safety rep at work
- contacting your trade union or professional body
- contacting the local HSE office for advice.
How Do You Monitor Asthma Symptoms
Monitoring your asthma symptoms is an essential piece of managing the disease. Your healthcare provider may have you use a peak flow meter. This device measures how fast you can blow air out of your lungs. It can help your provider make adjustments to your medication. It also tells you if your symptoms are getting worse.
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Papers Of Particular Interest Published Recently Have Been Highlighted As: Of Importance Of Major Importance
Punekar Y, Sheikh A: Establishing the incidence and prevalence of multiple allergic conditions in children and adolescents: retrospective birth cohort of 43,473 children. Clin Exp Allergy 2009, 39:12091216.
Grundy J, Matthews S, Bateman B, et al.: Rising prevalence of allergy to peanut in children: data from 2 sequential cohorts. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2002, 110:784789.
Platts-Mills TA, Vervloet D, Thomas WR, et al.: Indoor allergens and asthma: report of the Third International Workshop. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997, 100:S2S24.
Douwes J, Strien R, Doekes G, et al.: Does early indoor microbial exposure reduce the risk of asthma? The Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy birth cohort study. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2006, 117:10671073.
Caudri D, Wijga A, Scholtens S, et al.: Early daycare is associated with an increase in airway symptoms in early childhood but is no protection against asthma or atopy at 8;years. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2009, 180:491498.
Weiss ST: Asthma in early life: is the hygiene hypothesis correct? J Pediatr 2008, 84:475476.
Arlian LG, Platts-Mills TA: The biology of dust mites and the remediation of mite allergens in allergic disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2001, 107:S406S413.
Gotzsche P, Johansen H: House dust mite control measures for asthma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008, 2:CD001187.
Compensation And Benefits For Occupational Asthma
If youre told that your asthma has been caused by your job, you should get advice quickly both about compensation and about benefits you may be entitled to.
Its important to claim your benefit as soon as possible. Payments will only start from the day you claim, not the day you found out you had occupational asthma.
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Allergic Rhinitis As A Risk Factor For Asthma
Settipane and colleagues conducted a prospective study on a cohort consisting of young university students to determine the long-term risk factors for developing asthma and allergic rhinitis . The follow-up study 23 years later revealed that the incidence of asthma and allergic rhinitis increases with age. Furthermore, the presence of allergic rhinitis and positive results of allergen skin tests were shown to be important risk factors of asthma development. Patients with allergic rhinitis have a threefold greater chance of developing asthma. Interestingly, the relief of rhinitis symptoms over time correlates with the improvement of asthma symptoms. Patients with more severe and persistent rhinitis are at a higher risk of developing asthma . A strong association between perennial rhinitis and asthma in nonatopic subjects was also demonstrated in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey .
Background: Type 2 Immune Response
Traditionally, type 2-immunity is triggered by allergens or parasitic infection and characterized by the differentiation of naïve T CD4+ cells towards Th2 effector cells, which is typically associated with IgE production, eosinophilia and mast cell activation. The keystone cytokines in type 2 immune response include interleukin 4, IL-5, IL-9, and IL-13 . IL-4 is crucial for the differentiation of naïve Th0 cells to Th2 cells, which in turn induce isotype switching to IgE production. Specific IgE antibodies bind to their high affinity receptors FceRI on the surface of basophils or mast cells, leading to the sensitization of those cells. IL-5 and IL-9 are responsible for the activation and recruitment of eosinophils and mast cells, while IL-13 induces goblet cell hyperplasia, mucus hyper-secretion and airway hyper-responsiveness . Nevertheless, the initiation of immune response is believed to be triggered by the innate immune cells located at the epithelium of the skin, lung, or gut. Injured epithelial cells produce master regulatory cytokines, including thymic stromal lymphopoietin , IL-25 and IL-33. Subsequently, those cytokines stimulate Th2 cells and type 2 innate lymphoid cells to produce Th2 cytokines. Furthermore, IL-33 and TSLP could directly activate mast cells, while TSLP stimulates dendritic cells to induce a Th2-like process.