Chronic Conditions And Wildfire Smoke
People with any chronic condition should take the following steps to protect themselves from wildfire smoke:
- Before wildfire season:
- Talk to your healthcare provider. Plan how you will protect yourself against wildfire smoke.
- Stock up on medicine. Store a 7 to 10-day supply of prescription medicines in a waterproof, childproof container to take with you if you evacuate.
- Buy groceries you wont need to cook. Frying or grilling especially can make indoor air pollution worse.
- After a wildfire:
- Do not return home until you are told it is safe to do so.
- Look out for any symptoms. Contact your healthcare provider if you have trouble breathing, shortness of breath, cough that wont stop, or other symptoms that do not go away. Call 9-1-1 or go right away to an emergency department for medical emergencies.
- Smoke can stay in the air days after wildfires have ended so continue to check local air quality.
Adipose Tissue Inflammation And Lung Function In Obesity
Obesity significantly affects the immune cells in adipose tissue. Adipose tissue macrophages are significantly increased . Weisberg et al isolated subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese individuals and determined that adipose tissue macrophages accounted for up to 50% of the cells in the tissue when stained for the macrophage antigenCD68 . Sideleva et al reported increased infiltration of subcutaneous adipose tissue and visceral adipose tissue by macrophages in obese individuals with asthma, though this did not correlate with measures of inflammation in the lung . Peryalill et al reported these macrophages were predominantly of a pro-inflammatory phenotype . Increased adipose tissue mass is also associated with increased mast cell propagation. Mast cells are key mediators of allergy, and adipose tissue is an important source of mast cell progenitor cells . Indeed, compared to lean individuals, the burden of mast cells is increased in obese humans and mice suggesting that obesity-induced mast cell proliferation might be another potential mechanism for airway disease in obesity.
Immune cells and adipokines increased in obesity and their effect on lung function
Asthma Attack And Respiratory Failure
People with severe asthma also have an increased risk for respiratory failure. Respiratory failure occurs when not enough oxygen travels from your lungs to your blood. Life-threatening asthma is rare, but tends to cause symptoms that get progressively worse over several days. Ask your doctor more about your treatment options and how to manage your condition, if you believe you may have asthma that is life-threatening.
If respiratory failure isnt treated immediately, it can lead to death. The estimates that nine Americans die from asthma every day. There are more than 4,000 asthma-related deaths a year in America. But many of these deaths are preventable with proper symptom and emergency care.
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Who Is At Risk For Asthma
Asthma affects people of all ages, but it often starts during childhood. Certain factors can raise your risk of having asthma:
- Being exposed to secondhand smoke when your mother is pregnant with you or when you are a small child
- Being exposed to certain substances at work, such as chemical irritants or industrial dusts
- Genetics and family history. You are more likely to have asthma if one of your parents has it, especially if it’s your mother.
- Race or ethnicity. Black and African Americans and Puerto Ricans are at higher risk of asthma than people of other races or ethnicities.
- Having other medical conditions such as allergies and obesity
- Often having viral respiratory infections as a young child
- Sex. In children, asthma is more common in boys. In teens and adults, it is more common in women.
Can Asthma Reappear In Adults After Disappearing Years Ago
Asthma is usually diagnosed in childhood. In many patients; however, the symptoms will disappear or are significantly reduced after puberty. After age 20, symptoms may begin to reappear.
Researchers have tracked this tendency for reappearing asthma and found that people with childhood asthma tend to experience reappearing symptoms through their 30s and 40s at various levels of severity.
Regardless of whether your asthma is active, you should continue to avoid your known triggers and keep your rescue medications or prescriptions up-to-date and handy in case you need them.
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What Effects Does Smoking Cannabis Have On The Respiratory System
- Evidence Briefs
**Publication Note: In the text below if you see words that look like this you can hover your mouse over the word to view a definition. This hover function only works on desktop computers therefore, a full glossary is also available at the end of the article.**The most common form of administration of cannabis is through inhalation .12; A 2016 survey of 364 Canadian medicinal cannabis users found that 52.7% vaporized cannabis, whereas 58.8% also smoked cannabis in some form.2;; As cannabis contains many compounds with a similar profile to tobacco, heating and combustion of these chemicals may result in short- and long-term respiratory effects.3; This Evidence Brief will summarize what is known about smoking cannabis and its acute and chronic effects on the respiratory system.
Table 1 Cannabis Smoke Vs. Tobacco Smoke. Values presented reflect the difference in cannabis smoke.
Adapted from Moir et al. 20084
Chronic smoking results in physical changes to the respiratory system.; When looking at biopsy specimens, researchers have noted that chronic cannabis smoking results in extensive histopathologic abnormalities in the trachea-bronchial mucosaesimilar to tobacco use.3; These findings have also been confirmed upon visual inspection with video bronchoscopy, where smoked cannabis use results in large airway inflammation and injury.;3;
Glossary of Terms
Bronchitis – is an inflammation of the lining of the bronchial tubes.
Bronchial Asthma: A Complex Disease
Bronchial asthma is a chronic disease characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness to a series of allergens or irritants. Coexistence of airway inflammation and remodelling has led to the hypothesis that the disease is inflammatory in nature, although the relationship between the inflammatory process and AHR has not been consistently shown. For example, studies examined by Brusasco etâal. revealed that markers of inflammation correlated with AHR in no more than 50% of the cases. In addition, pharmacological interventions have shown that inflammation can be modified independently of AHR and vice versa. It is significant that, despite a multitude of studies on cellular and molecular lung biology and immunology, the precise pathogenesis of asthma still remains unknown. In this review, we examine the disease from a different perspective. Specifically, we suggest that the pathogenesis of asthma can be better understood if we start from the principle that the lung is a complex organ and any chronic disease affecting it will also become complex.
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What Are The Respiratory Effects Of Chronic Exposure
Epidemiologic studies conducted in the U.S. and abroad provide evidence of;associations between long-term exposure to fine particles;and both decrements in lung function growth in children;and increased respiratory symptoms.
The Children’s Health Study evaluated;three separate cohorts of children who had longitudinal lung-function measurements recorded over the same 4-year age range and in the same five study communities but during different calendar periods. The study;shows an association between improvements in air quality in southern California and measurable improvements in lung-function development in children. Improved lung function was most strongly associated with lower levels of particle pollution and nitrogen dioxide. These associations were observed in boys and girls, Hispanic white and non-Hispanic white children, and children with asthma and children without asthma, which suggests that all children have the potential to benefit from reduced exposure to particle pollution.
This same group conducted another epidemiological study that looked at the impact of improvement in particle pollution levels in Southern California between 1993 and 2012. It found that as ambient pollution levels improved there was a statistically significant decrease in bronchitic symptoms in children, especially among those with asthma .;;
Monitoring Asthma At Home
Some people use a handheld peak flow meter to evaluate their breathing and determine when they need intervention, before their symptoms become severe. People who experience frequent, severe asthma attacks should know how to reach help quickly.
Peak expiratory flow can be measured using a small handheld device called a peak flow meter. This test can be used at home to monitor the severity of asthma. Usually, peak flow rates are lowest between 4 AM and 6 AM and highest at 4 PM. However, more than a 30% difference in rates at these times is considered evidence of moderate to severe asthma. People with moderate to severe asthma, particularly those who need daily treatment to control symptoms, often use a peak flow meter to take measurements and compare them to their personal best to help identify signs of worsening asthma or the onset of an asthma attack.
All people with asthma should have a written treatment action plan that was devised in collaboration with their doctor. Such a plan allows them to take control of their own treatment and has been shown to decrease the number of times people need to seek care for asthma in the emergency department.
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Who Is Most At Risk For Respiratory Depression
Summary: Elderly, female sex, presence of obstructive sleep apnea, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiac disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, neurologic disease, renal disease, obesity, two or more comorbidities, opioid dependence, use of patient controlled analgesia, different routes of administration of
Global Alliance Against Chronic Respiratory Diseases
The Global Alliance against Chronic Respiratory Diseases contributes to WHOs work to prevent and control chronic respiratory diseases. GARD is a voluntary alliance of national and international organizations and agencies from many countries committed to the vision of a world where all people breathe freely.
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How Is Asthma Classified
Doctors rank how bad asthma is by its symptoms:
Your asthma may be getting worse if:
- You have symptoms more often and they interfere more with your daily life.
- You have a hard time breathing. You can measure this with a device called a peak flow meter.
- You need to use a quick-relief inhaler more often.
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Asthma Symptoms In Children
Children are not always able to express in words that their asthma symptoms are worsening. They may have noticeable coughing and wheezing, but these are not always the first indications of breathing distress. Different children show asthma trouble in different ways.
Some possible indications of the beginning of an asthma episode include:
- Unusual tiredness or restlessness
- Frequent symptoms at night
Effect Of Obesity On Diseases Of The Heart And Lungs
The respiratory system is constantly under stress as it works to meet the ventilatory demands of the body. Work of breathing is increased in diseases such as ARDS, pneumonia and heart failure, and the physiological response of the lungs to the increased ventilatory demands is complicated by the obese state. Currently, few studies have assessed how obesity specifically impacts pulmonary function during acute episodes of these conditions . However, it has been clearly shown that obesity is a risk factor for heart disease , and obese patients have an increased susceptibility to influenza and bacterial pneumonia and suffer worse outcomes from these conditions. Obese patients also have an increased risk of developing ARDS but paradoxically, they have the lowest risk of mortality from the condition . The likely mechanisms that underlie these effects are poorly understood, but it is thought that obesity-induced imbalances in adipokine levels could impair pulmonary vascular endothelial function and prime the lung for injury . Defects in neutrophil chemotaxis and survival are also thought to play a role .
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How Is Asthma Diagnosed
To diagnose asthma, a doctor will do a physical exam and ask about the person’s medical history, including whether anyone else;in the family has asthma.
The doctor might do tests like spirometry or peak flow meter tests. These involve blowing into devices that can measure how well the lungs are working. Allergy tests or exercise tests can tell doctors if asthma is brought on by allergens or physical activity. Doctors may use X-rays to rule out other problems.
Secondhand Smoke And Children
Children who are around others who smoke are much more likely to:
- Need emergency room care more often
- Miss school more often
- Have asthma that is harder to control
- Have more colds
- Begin smoking themselves
No one should smoke in your house. This includes you and your visitors.
Smokers should smoke outside and wear a coat. The coat will keep smoke particles from sticking to their clothes. They should leave the coat outside or put it somewhere away from a child with asthma.
Ask people who work at your childs daycare, school, and anyone else who takes care of your child if they smoke. If they do, make sure they smoke away from your child.
Stay away from restaurants and bars that allow smoking. Or ask for a table as far away from smokers as possible.
When you travel, do not stay in rooms that allow smoking.
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Asthma: How Does It Affect The Body Ausme
Its potential health risks include severe lung injury, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease , asthma, and lung cancer. Bronchiolitis obliterans is caused by inhaling diacetyl, a flavoring chemical commonly found in vape e-liquids. In August 2019, the first death caused by a vaping-related lung illness is reported For most of us breathing is spontaneous and effortless, but sometimes it can become a challenge. Lung and respiratory system complications like infections, allergies, asthma and bronchitis can all lead to difficulties breathing, but sometimes breathlessness could be an indication that there’s a problem with your heart Also, most people think asthma affects only your lungs but in actuality it affects so many more areas of your life. Asthma is caused by a sub-group of white blood cells called T cells
What Are The Long
In the long term, chronic inflammation and bronchospasms from asthma can make structural changes in the airway causing it to become permanently narrowed. The airway tubes become scarred and thickened, and the bronchial muscles get enlarged, leading to reduced lung function and breathing difficulties.
Asthma increases the risk for bronchial infections. Asthma can also affect sleep quality and lead to sleep deprivation. It can affect the ability to take part in exercise and sports, which can in turn, potentially lead to conditions such as diabetes, obesity and high blood pressure.
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How Can I Stop My Asthma Getting Worse Over Time
The best way to stop your asthma getting worse over time is to stick to a good routine of taking your preventer medicines as prescribed.
And if you notice your symptoms are getting worse, see your GP or asthma nurse as soon as possible so they can review your treatment.
You can also cut your risk of frequent asthma attacks, and your asthma getting worse, by stopping smoking.
Having an;asthma review;at least once a year, gives you a chance to talk through any symptoms or new triggers. You can check youre on the right medicine and that youre using your inhaler in the right way to get the most benefits.
You can also talk to your GP or asthma nurse about whether you need a higher dose or an add-on treatment to help with symptoms.
What Asthma Treatment Options Are There
You have options to help manage your asthma. Your healthcare provider may prescribe medications to control symptoms. These include:
- Anti-inflammatory medicines: These medicines reduce swelling and mucus production in your airways. They make it easier for air to enter and exit your lungs. Your healthcare provider may prescribe them to take every day to control or prevent your symptoms.
- Bronchodilators: These medicines relax the muscles around your airways. The relaxed muscles let the airways move air. They also let mucus move more easily through the airways. These medicines relieve your symptoms when they happen.
- Biologic therapies for asthma when symptoms persist despite being on proper inhaler therapy.
You can take asthma medicines in several different ways. You may breathe in the medicines using a metered-dose inhaler, nebulizer or other inhaler. Your healthcare provider may prescribe oral medications that you swallow.
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Will It Ever Go Away
Asthma has a variable course. Many children with asthma see it improve or appear to go away as they get older. This can happen any time in childhood or adolescence. If asthma was only intermittent in nature and triggered by viral respiratory infections , there is an excellent likelihood that asthma will be much less of a problem as the child gets older. Sometimes the nature of the asthma changes with age. A young child may have asthma initially only from viral infections. As the child ages, asthma may occur less from viral infections , but inhalant allergy may become an important contributor to the asthma. If asthma persists into adult life, or returns later in adult life after a period of remission, persisting asthmatic symptoms may not be readily explainable by any environmental factors.
Whatever the course, however, asthma is virtually always controllable with acceptably safe measures. While ongoing medical evaluation of asthma should assess whether the disease is still active and continues to need treatment, it is not wise to withhold treatment in the hope that asthma will go away by itself. That may indeed occur, but it may not, and there can be considerable avoidable suffering and disability in the interim.