Design And Study Participants
This study was a cross-sectional general population based survey in five districts in Uganda: Kampala and Iganga, Kiruhura, Maracha and Pader , Fig.;. The overall calculated sample size was 2936 participants based on the assumption of an asthma prevalence of 8%, a precision of 0.03 and a design effect of 1.5 . Clusters were selected by probability proportionate to size by Uganda Bureau of Statistics using the Uganda National population and housing census of 2014. Households within clusters were selected by simple random sampling from a household list generated by village leaders. All persons aged 12 who were members of selected household and provided written informed consent were surveyed. Exclusion criteria were: residency of congregation settings and temporary residents . According to the Uganda National population and housing census of 2014, the average number of persons 12years and older in a household was estimated to be 2.5 persons and the average number of households per cluster was 90 households. Based on these estimates we surveyed a total of 1408 households in 60 clusters across the country; 20 clusters in Kampala and 20 households from each of the clusters and in rural districts we surveyed 10 clusters and 25 households from each of the districts.
Data Extraction And Analysis
Relevant data were extracted from retained studies and saved in Microsoft Excel file-format. All data were double extracted and sorted by country, study period, age, and their respective case number, sample size, and prevalence estimate. Extracts were grouped into data from written questionnaires or video questionnaires, both including data based on asthma diagnosis, and/or its symptoms . For studies conducted on the same study site, population or cohort, the first chronologically published study was selected, with all additional data from other studies added to that of the selected paper.
For our analysis, weighted means of asthma symptoms were calculated and expressed in percentages. Asthma prevalence estimates based on current wheeze have high sensitivities and specificities ; we therefore applied extracted values from this in our modeling. Mean age and prevalence were plotted on bubble graphs, and the fitted curve explaining the largest proportion of variance was applied. The equation generated determined the prevalence of asthma in Africa at midpoints of the United Nation population 5-year age-groups for the years 1990, 2000, and 2010.
Search Strategy And Selection Criteria
We conducted a systematic search of Medline, EMBASE, and Global Health. After an initial scoping exercise to identify Medical Subject Headings and keywords, we developed a final search strategy. We further hand-searched reference lists of retained publications for more relevant studies. African countries were included as contained in the World Bank list of economies from July 2012 .
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Management Of Asthma And Public Health Challenges In Africa
Asthma is an important and increasing public health problem in Africa which receives inadequate priority and attention. With increasing urbanization, population aging, and adoption of western lifestyles in many African settings, these trends are set to continue in the near future. There is a need to identify and prioritize feasible strategies that can be adopted to promote the implementation of effective interventions that will address this increasing burden in Africa. There is also a need for African national governments to also consider effects of associated risk factors in public health policy planning on this topic with a focus on reducing environmental triggers, placing restrictions on tobacco adverts, and appropriately educating health care personnel and the public on the management of the disease and the preventive measures.
Prevalence Of Current Asthma
The prevalence of current asthma was 5% . It was significantly higher among PCS, participants exposed to outdoor allergens, those consuming fruits and vegetables less than once per week, participants with a family history of chronic respiratory diseases, with lung problems during childhood, and with allergic rhinitis . However, the prevalence was lower among CCS, CWS, and persons living in the South compared to Beirut. No other significant associations were observed. In the multivariable analysis, the consumption of fruits and vegetables less than once per week , a family history of chronic respiratory diseases , lung problems during childhood , and allergic rhinitis were positively associated with current asthma while living in the South and being a CCS showed a negative association .
Table 3 Prevalence of current asthma according to the participants characteristics and risk factors
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How Does Asthma Affect Canadians
For the purpose of this fact sheet, we have focused on the subset of individuals with active asthma including only those who have had asthma symptoms or used asthma medications in the past 12 months. In 2009-10, more than 1.8 million Canadians were living with active asthma.
Only one in three had their asthma well-controlled.
- Canadians under the age of 65 years, people with total household incomes below $80,000, and people living outside of an urban core were less likely to have their asthma well controlled. Current smokers and people with high blood pressure were also less likely to have their asthma controlled.
|Definition: “poorly controlled” asthma is defined as having at least one of the following indicators:||Percent of active asthma respondents|
|Experienced asthma symptoms 4 days per week on average.||21.9%|
|10. Outdoor air pollution||46.1%|
Each of the following triggers were reported by 43% or fewer of respondents: change in temperature or weather, chemical fumes or gases , perfumes or colognes, fumes from a wood stove or wood furnace, feathers in items such as pillows, quilts or duvets, laughing or crying, stress, certain foods, and certain medicines.
Medication Use Is A Key Component Of Asthma Management
There are two main types of asthma medicines: preventer medicine and rescue medicine. Asthma preventer medicine is prescribed to be taken every day either on a regular basis or at certain times of year, to reduce the inflammation of the airways. Asthma rescue medicine is prescribed to be taken when needed – during an asthma attack or breathing difficulty, or sometimes before exercising or exposure to known triggers to open the airways.
- 87.2% reported that they currently take prescribed medications for their asthma.
- 58.0% reported taking a preventer medication in the past month.
- Those who used preventer medication in the past month were asked to identify when they take them :
- 70.9% reported taking it at appropriate times .
- In some cases people may be using their preventer medication as if it were a symptom reliever: 39.4% reported taking it at inappropriate times .
Figure 1: What are Canadians doing to manage their asthma?
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Data Management And Analysis
Data were collected by ICM Research and its partners in participating countries. Data analysis was performed by the authors. Differences between normally distributed means were tested using unpaired t-test and differences between proportions by the Chi-squared test. Agreement between different methods of assessing asthma control and severity was measured by Cohen’s kappa statistic. p-values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. All analyses were performed using STATA .
Survey Reveals Growing National Impact Of Asthma
CDC releases “Asthma’s Impact on the Nation”
An estimated 29.1 million adults have been diagnosed with asthma in their lifetimes, and 18.7 million still had asthma, according to 2010 data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The report, Asthmas Impact on the Nation, is the first state-by-state data gathered using the Asthma Call-back Survey, an in-depth survey conducted among people with asthma identified by the CDC Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.
The information in this release is a stark reminder that asthma continues to be major public health concern with a large financial impact on families, the nation, and our health care system, said Christopher J. Portier, Ph.D., director of CDCs National Center for Environmental Health and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.; A key component for adults and children is to create and follow an asthma action plan. Significantly, this analysis reveals that more than half of all children and more than two-thirds of all adults with asthma do not have an individualized action plan. CDC encourages those with asthma to work with their doctors to take control of this disease.;
Additional highlights from Asthmas Impact on the Nation release:
###U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES
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Fast Facts About Asthma: Data Compiled From The 2011 Survey On Living With Chronic Diseases In Canada
For readers interested in the PDF version, the document is available for downloading or viewing:
Asthma is a chronic condition characterized by cough, shortness of breath, chest tightness and wheezing. Asthma symptoms and attacks usually occur after exercise, exposure to allergens or irritants, or viral respiratory infections.Footnote 1 Risk factors for asthma include: family history of allergies; high exposure to airborne allergens ; frequent respiratory infections early in life; exposure to airborne irritants ; and low birth weight and respiratory distress syndrome .Footnote 2
In 2009-10, more than 2.4 million Canadians aged 12 years and over were living with asthma . While there are many effective approaches to asthma including clinical management, medication and self-care, optimal control of the condition remains elusive for a majority of Canadians living with asthma.
The Public Health Agency of Canada developed the 2011 Survey on Living with Chronic Diseases in Canada , which provides current information on how asthma affects Canadians. This survey, conducted by Statistics Canada, interviewed a nationally-representative sample of approximately 2,500 Canadians aged 12 years and older who reported having been diagnosed with asthma. Individuals experiencing both asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were excluded.
Impact On Family Life And Parental Concerns
Childhood/adolescent asthma had a substantial impact on family life. 42% of parents reported taking time off work; 40% regularly missed sleep; 37% devoted more time and attention to the child with asthma than to others in the household; 27% reported that they had abstained from engaging in activities or family events believing that these were unsuitable for individuals with asthma; and 24% spent more time with the child/adolescent at home as their movements were restricted. Most parents reported that they had implemented lifestyle changes to reduce the asthma-related risks to their child and 39% thought that their child/adolescent’s asthma limited participation in various activities. This did not appear to be influenced by age , with similar proportions reporting a change in each age group. However, there was a clear influence of overall control, families with children with three or more uncontrolled GINA items being more likely to report undertaking lifestyle changes .
At diagnosis, 78% of parents were worried about their child’s general health and welfare. Whilst by the time of the interview, this had decreased significantly to 38% , certain common concerns persisted. 57% of parents worried that their child/adolescent would have an attack when they or their partner was not around, 41% worried that their child might run out of medication while out of the house and 31% believed that their child/adolescent would not be able to lead a normal life.
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Exposure To Tobacco Smoke Among Those Diagnosed With Asthma
The negative health effects of tobacco smoke are well established.Footnote 3 For those with asthma, exposure to tobacco smoke, either directly or indirectly, can provoke or exacerbate an asthmatic condition . Smoking cessation or elimination of second hand smoke exposure among those who have asthma can lead to better controlled asthma. The SLCDC found that among those who have asthma:
- 14.7% reported that they were current smokers .
- 26.2% reported that they were former smokers.
- 22.6% indicated members of their household smoke.
- Of those who indicated that a household member smokes, 37.5% indicated a doctor or other health professional suggested that other members of their household quit or cut down smoking to help control their asthma.
According To A National Survey Of Asthma: On May 1 2010 The Number Of Residents Of Oklahoma Who Had Been Diagnosed With Asthma
It is given that
According to a national survey of asthma:
“A” is the number of citizens of Oklahoma who had suffered from asthma during their life as on May 1, 2010.
“B” is the ;population on June 30, 2010.
And “C” is the number of new cases registered for asthama in the same year that is in the year 2010.
Thus the incidence rate per 100,000 of asthma is expressed as x 100,000
That is the ratio of new cases registered for asthama inthe year 2010 to the population of Oklahoma in the year 2010 multiplied by 100,000.
Thus the answer is x 100,000
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Study Design And Population
A national cross-sectional study was carried out and data collection took place between February and June 2020, using a multistage cluster sampling. First, 70 villages/cities from all the governorates were randomly selected from the list of all the Lebanese villages provided by the Central Agency of Statistics in Lebanon. Then a random sample of 1011 Lebanese adults 16;years old or above was selected from each village. In total, 770 participants were approached, 36 refused to participate and 734 participants were enrolled .
Symptoms Among Participants With Current Asthma
Among participants with current asthma, 68% reported chronic cough, 84% wheezing, and 84% shortness of breath. As for the dayparts during which these symptoms appeared most, wheezing at night was the most common , followed by cough all over the day , and cough at night .
Symptoms among participants with current asthma : chronic cough, wheezing, and shortness of breath as well as the dayparts during which these symptoms appeared most . The horizontal axis shows the symptoms and their time of occurrence during the day. The vertical axis presents the percentages
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A National Survey Of Asthma Conducted On May 1 2012 Obtained The Following Results For The State Of Oklahoma:
The incidence rate per 100,000 =
The number of residents with asthma = X
The population of the state on June 30, 2012 = Y
The number of new cases of asthma diagnosed during 2012 = Z
The incidence rate is the rate or then frequency at which a disease occurs over a time period
The incidence rate per 100,000 =
The incidence rate per 100,000 =
If she plans to jog 4.25 miles each day then 4.25 * 7 would equal 29.75. This is the first answer.
In order to get the second answer, we need to subtract 30.5 over 29.75 . So 30.5 – 29.75 = 0.75
Here is the math I did to get 0.75:
= 30.5 – 29.75
I doubt that you actually meant If cos0= -5/13 and sin 0<0. ;Please use a Greek letter, such as , to represent the angle.
If you’d do this, you’d have:
If cos= -5/13 and sin <0
cos and sin are both negative in Quadrant III.
Recall that cos = adj / hyp, and that hyp is always +. ;Thus, adj = -5 and hyp = +13. ;Using the Pythagorean Theorem to find opp:
opp² + adj² = hyp², or:
opp² = hyp² – adj². ;Applying this, we find that opp = -12.
Recall that tan = opp / adj.
tan = -12 / = +12/5
This Problem Has Been Solved
A national survey of asthma conducted on ay 1,2012, obtained thefollowing results for the state of Oklahoma:
X = the number of residents with asthma
Y = the at-risk population of the state on June 30, 2012
Z= the number of new cases of asthma diagnosed during 2012.
The Incident Rate of asthma during 2012 would beexpressed as?
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Characteristics Of Study Participants
From September 15th to October 10th, 2016, 4310 participants were invited and 3416 participated . Of 3416 participants, 61.2% were female, 22.78% were of urban residence and the median age was 30years . Further details of participants characteristics are shown in Table;.
Table 1 Characteristics of study participants -Percent distribution by asthma status
Clinical Care Is Essential To Ensure That Asthma Is Being Properly Managed
Since asthma is a chronic condition, regular monitoring and education around how to manage asthma are key factors in well managed asthma. The SLCDC found that:
- 83.8% reported a family doctor or general practitioner was most responsible for their care.
- 62.3% reported having seen or talked to a family doctor or general practitioner about their condition in the past 12 months.
- 5.6% reported having seen or talked to an asthma or respiratory educator about their condition in the past 12 months.
- 77.8% reported ever receiving lung function testing.
- 65.2% reported ever having had allergy tests and 89.0% were told they have allergies.
- Individuals with uncontrolled asthma were more likely to report having received a written action plan from their health professional for asthma control compared to individuals with controlled asthma .
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Cigarette And Waterpipe Smoking
Current cigarette smokers were defined as persons who smoked daily in the past 30;days . In the absence of a standard definition of a regular waterpipe smoker, current waterpipe smokers were defined as smoking at least one waterpipe per month . Previous cigarette smokers were defined as those who used to be regular cigarette smokers but who had quit smoking at the time of the interview . Previous waterpipe smokers were defined as those who used to smoke regularly but have not smoked in more than one month .