The Role Of Nfat Activation In The Pathogenesis Of Inflammatory And Immunologicaldisorders
NFAT proteins are expressed on T-cells and other classes of immune systemcells, such as B-cells, mast cells, eosinophils and natural killer cells.NFAT proteins are activated by stimulation of Gq-coupled receptors coupledto Ca2+ mobilisation, such as antigen receptors on T- andB-cells, and receptors on other cells. NFAT transcription factors are keyregulators of inducible gene transcription during the immune response. NFATactivation can also promote smooth muscle cell proliferation and, thus, contributeto the proliferative reaction in airway remodelling.
Tips For Parents And Carers Of Children With Asthma
All the above tips also apply to children, but useful tips to help your child manage their asthma include:
- Generally, your child can take their preventer medication before and after school.
- As your child gets older, involve them in decisions about their asthma medications and management.
- Linking asthma medication to your childs own goals can help. For instance, a child who loves sports may take asthma medication more readily if they know it helps them participate.
Flu Shot Side Effects : What’s Normal And What’s Cause For Concern
All vaccines have the potential to cause side effects, and that includes your yearly flu shot. Here’s what to expect when you get your flu shot this year.
The flu shot can cause some side effects which are usually normal.
The coronavirus is still a very real concern this fall, but so is the influenza virus, aka the flu. The good news is we have very safe and effective tools for fighting and preventing both potentially deadly viruses, thanks to the COVID-19 vaccines and the flu vaccine.
According to the CDC, flu shots are safe and one of the best ways to keep from getting and spreading the flu to others. And people who get vaccinated and get sick anyway often experience less severe symptoms. If you’re thinking of getting vaccinated for both COVID-19 and the flu, the CDC says it is safe to get both vaccines together .
The simple fact is, flu vaccines can save lives. There are plenty of myths out there about the flu vaccine, such as the idea that it can give you the flu. While that’s not true, you can experience some side effects from the flu shot. The side effects are usually mild and nothing to worry about, but it’s important to know about them so you’re not worried when you get your vaccine.
Below, Dr. Carmen Teague, specialty medical director at Atrium Health‘s Mecklenburg Medical Group shares what you need to know about common flu shot side effects that are normal, and which side effects may be a sign of something more serious.
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Signs Of A More Serious Reaction
“A very small percentage of people can have a true allergic reaction to the vaccine, including chest tightness, difficulty breathing, wheezing, facial or throat swelling and redness of the eyes,” Teague says. If you experience these symptoms, you should seek medical attention immediately. Teague says severe allergic reactions usually happen within a few hours of getting the flu shot.
Signs of a severe allergic reaction, according to the CDC, can include:
- Difficulty breathing
- Swelling around the eyes or lips
- A fast heartbeat or dizziness
Another possible reaction is an infection where the shot was administered. “Patients can also develop an infection at the injection site, which is manifested as worsening redness, swelling, warmth and tenderness,” Teague says. You should also seek immediate medical attention for this type of reaction.
The information contained in this article is for educational and informational purposes only and is not intended as health or medical advice. Always consult a physician or other qualified health provider regarding any questions you may have about a medical condition or health objectives.
Will Aspirin And Other Pain Relievers Make My Asthma Worse
Aspirin and other drugs called nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may be harmful for people who have asthma. Ibuprofen and naproxen are a few examples of NSAIDs. If you are allergic to aspirin, ask your doctor or pharmacist to make sure any new medicine you might take is not related to aspirin.
People who have asthma can usually take acetaminophen safely. This medicine is typically used to relieve fever and pain. Very rarely, even acetaminophen may make asthma worse, which has prompted further studies to explore the link between acetaminophen and asthma. If acetaminophen makes your asthma worse, tell your doctor. He or she can help you find another type of pain reliever.
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Calcineurinnuclear Factor Of Activated T
Transcription factors of the NFAT family are master regulators of immune responses, as well as of gene expressionin a host of tissues and organs, including smooth muscle . Four of the NFAT proteins are normally cytoplasmic, i.e. inactive.However, upon dephosphorylation by the Ca2+-responsive phosphatasecalcineurin, the proteins are activated and translocated to the nucleus. ActivatedNFAT exerts its multiple regulatory actions by forming co-operative complexeswith other transcription factors, including the activator protein-1 familyof proteins .
What About Exercise Asthma And Diabetes
Exercise is one of the best ways to manage blood glucose levels, lower stress levels, promote weight loss and improve cholesterol levels. Exercise can also help with asthma symptoms by making your lungs stronger.
Learn more about how exercise and the proper diet can help you manage type 2 diabeteshere.
So, what if you have asthma, use an inhaler and you notice high blood sugar levels after exercising? Here is what some viewers had to say about their own experience:
At tudiabetes.org, user Andrea Karim asked, Are there any other asthmatic people with diabetes out there who have had a problem with higher BG after exercising with Albuterol?
User Sheila Fitz answered, OMG, yes, yes!!! I have had many problems with asthma this year after the heat went on when the weather got colder here in Chicago. Well, one day, I decided to go to Zumba, but brought my Albuterol. I used my inhaler between every song for the first half of the class struggling to get enough air and let my lungs relax. I got home and my bg was 126.
Note: BG stands for blood glucose.
User Denise Bevard answered, Oh yeahand how much any of my asthma meds will raise my BG is dependent how much makes its way through the lungs. So the better you are breathing the higher the BG goes.
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Other Medication And Asthma Triggers
Some medication for other health conditions can make asthma symptoms worse and trigger an asthma flare-up or attack.
It is very important that you inform your doctor and pharmacist that you have asthma when a new medicine is prescribed to you or when you are buying over-the-counter medication or complementary therapies.
If you feel a particular medicine is making your asthma worse, treat your symptoms and contact your doctor immediately.Some medicines known to trigger asthma symptoms in some people include:
- aspirin contained in some medication, such as pain relievers
- non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen and naproxen
- beta-blocker tablets often used to control high blood pressure
- beta-blocker eye drops to treat the eye condition glaucoma
- ace inhibitors often used to control high blood pressure.
The Overlap Between Genes Associated With Asthma And Hypertension Independently
Aiming to compose comprehensive lists of genes associated with asthma and hypertension and investigate their overlap, we collected gene-disease associations supported by a variety of evidence types: genetic associations, differential expression, co-occurrence in texts, and targeting by drugs used against asthma and hypertension. Also, to expand these gene lists, we used GWAS hits mapped to known eQTLs and selected genes regulated by these eQTLs. Finally, we hypothesized, that genes targeted by drugs causing adverse effects similar to asthma and hypertension may also be involved in their pathogenesis. Therefore, in addition to drugs that can treat asthma and hypertension, we took into account drugs that exaggerate these diseases and added their targets in the lists of genes for asthma or hypertension.
After combination of gene-disease associations from various evidence sources , the lists of 980 genes associated with asthma and 1204 genes associated with hypertension were compiled. Out of them, 330 genes were associated with both diseases according to at least one data source . To facilitate further use of associations relevant for asthma and hypertension comorbidity, we added them to GenCoNet database.
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What To Make Of This
Much more research needs to be done on this subject. One objective of such research is to learn more about high blood pressure and asthma. A second objective is to find better strategies for treating both conditions. A third objective may involve developing strategies for screening asthmatics for hypertension and vice versa.
Unvaccinated Babies Not Always Welcome In Pediatricians Offices
Another factor: Children with the most severe cases of asthma and allergies are often treated with steroids. Asthma patients, for example, are often prescribed a drug that falls into the family of beta-agonists, which relax constricted airways and ease breathing. But while they relieve symptoms of asthma, Marshall said, they also can raise blood pressure.
This finding really underscores why we need safer and better long-term medications to treat these disorders, Silverberg said.
Experts said doctors and parents need to be more attuned to cardiovascular problems that crop up in children with asthma and allergies, including checking their cholesterol levels periodically. But they said not enough physicians are doing so.
It hasnt yet risen to the conscious level of providers that deal with this on a regular basis, Marshall said, and thats alarming.
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Reasons Steroids And Diabetes Dont Mix
Steroids are used in asthma patients to reduce the inflammation and swelling of the airways of the lungs. The most common steroids are cortisone and prednisone. So, how do these steroids affect blood glucose levels? Basically, steroids make it tough for the bodys cells to utilize insulin.
Lets take a look at some patients with diabetes who also use steroids to control their asthma symptoms:
At diabetesdaily.com, user Andy957, has Type 2 diabetes, who was diagnosed with allergy-related asthma and uses an inhaler with steroids to control their asthma wants to know if other people with diabetes, who use inhalers have experienced problems? Note: this user has a Salbutamol inhaler for their asthma treatment and NovoRapid and Levemir for their diabetes treatment.
User furball64801 answered, I do not use one but each time I get a steroid shot which is several times a year my bs can go as high as 300 or as low as the mid-100s so check often to see what your bs is.
User chellecarlisle answered, Ive had to use my steroid inhaler since August and it did raise my BG from avg in the 80s to in the 90s, but not nearly as bad as if I would have needed a shot!
Note: BG stands for Blood Glucose.
Can I Take Antihistamines For My Allergies
Antihistamines are usually safe for people who have asthma to use, but they can cause side effects. Some antihistamines cant be taken with certain other medicines. Like any other medicine, read the warnings and instructions on the label and check with your doctor before you start taking an antihistamine.
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Understanding How Blood Pressure Works
According to the American Heart Association, blood pressure is a measure of the force of your blood pushing against the walls of your blood vessels. How high your blood pressure is depends on how wide your blood vessels are and how fast your heart pumps blood through them.
If your blood vessels get more narrow, then your blood pressure goes up. Your blood pressure also rises any time your heart pumps harder, pushing more blood through your vessels at a time.
Your blood pressure at any given moment depends on a variety of factors, including your mood and activity level. For example, your blood vessels constrict when you exercise or get excited, which causes your blood pressure to rise.
This kind of blood pressure change is triggered by chemical signals in your body and it is known as vasoconstriction. It happens when your body purposefully constricts your blood vessels, often as a way to help you get more oxygen when you exercise or experience stress.
Vasoconstriction is only temporary, however, and your blood pressure returns back to a normal, baseline level after the chemical signal subsides. It is normal for your blood pressure to fluctuate throughout the day in this manner, but it is dangerous for your blood pressure to stay elevated for too long.
Safety And Extra Preventer Medication For Asthma
People who use a regular preventer , but still get regular asthma symptoms, may need to step up their medication.
These stronger preventers are called combination therapies because they include a second medicine and the inhaled corticosteroid. Asthma preventers should be prescribed at the lowest strength that works for you or your child. There is no extra benefit in taking medication that is stronger than you need.
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Asthma Med And High Blood Pressure
Has anyone had any raised blood pressure problems from asthma meds, I have read that LABAs can raise blood pressure. It would be good to know if anyone has a problem with this.
Hi, I have asthma and high blood pressure but I don’t think my high blood pressure comes from my asthma meds as I have a family history of inherited problems, and also took an anti-depressant for a while that raised my blood pressure.
hi i have had bp since being diagnosed with chest infction induced athma at christmas/new year. am on brown and blue inhalers nad now turquoise one, bp still high but dr says wants to sort breathing out then sort bp out, so just have to keep monitoring it at home every day and try keep chilled out! not easy””
Hi thanks for replying, My blood pressure has gone up recently, since having had very low blood pressure all my life, and is now on the edge of being high. I would like to take HRT, but I know the combination of asthma and HRT is not great. and I think elevated blood pressures will rule this out. I am thinking that maybe my asthma drugs have caused the raise in pressure, as I am on very high doses. I am looking to engage my gp in meaningful discussion about this subject, and want all the information I can get.
Iâm getting to âthat ageâ -like you? – although canât take HRT because of previous DVTâs caused by both âordinaryâ and progesterone only pill.
Itâs tough being a woman!
Risks And Side Effects
Side effects are putting me off taking my asthma medicines
Most medicines have side effects, but not everyone will get them. Some side effects are more common than others. Many listed on the patient information leaflet that comes with your medicine will be rare.
Tell your GP or asthma nurse about the side effects youre getting. There could be a simple way to reduce or treat the side effects, so you can carry on taking the medicine and getting the benefits for your asthma. If this isnt possible, there may be different asthma medicines you can try.
But remember that your asthma medicines lower your risk of an asthma attack so its important to keep taking them.
See your GP, asthma nurse, or pharmacist if youre worried about any side effects.
I get a hoarse voice, sore mouth, or thrush from taking my preventer inhaler
A hoarse voice, sore mouth, or oral thrush are common side effects of using a steroid preventer inhaler. The good news is, they can be avoided with good inhaler technique.
If youre taking your inhaler in the right way, the medicine does not stay in your mouth and throat but goes down into your airways where its needed.
Its also important to rinse your mouth out and gargle after using your inhaler.
Every time you go for an asthma review ask your GP or asthma nurse to check your inhaler technique. You can also watch our inhaler videos.
My heart beats faster when I take my reliever inhaler
Im worried about osteoporosis
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Developmental Relationships Of Airway And Pulmonary Vascular Smooth Muscle
The close relationship between the responses of airway and pulmonary vascularsmooth muscle cells in the pathological settings of bronchial asthma and PAH,respectively, begins during embryological development of the lung. Thus, pulmonaryvascular smooth muscle originates partly from migration of adjacent airwaysmooth muscle cells and from surrounding undifferentiated mesenchymal cells . As in remodelling, smooth muscle developmentand proliferation are controlled by the same or similar signalling molecules,including glycogen synthase kinase-3/-catenin and the Wnt family . Although the signals that stimulate their formation may bedistinct, airway and vascular smooth muscle cells are sufficiently alike toraise the question as to whether they can be differentiated from one another .
Asthma Attack Prevention Is Key
So, one of the keys to managing asthma is to prevent an asthma attack.
Here are some ways you can prevent an asthma attack:
- Get rid of mold that may be in your home. Mold is a popular asthma trigger.
- Avoid secondhand smoke. Secondhand smoke can cause an asthma attack.
- Avoid using cleaners with harsh chemicals. Fumes from harsh chemical cleaners may trigger an asthma attack.
- Use a cool mist humidifier in your home. These gadgets are designed to release mist into the air, making the air feel fresh and cool.
- Use hypoallergenic items in your home, such as organic bedding, pollen-free plants and HEPA vacuum cleaners.
- Use HEPA filters in your home. These filters are designed to trap irritants like smoke and dust so they are not released back into the air.
- Avoid colds, flus and viruses. Viral infections can trigger asthma symptoms by harming your lungs.
Some patients have stated that even though summer usually isnt an issue with asthma when the pollen count is higher in some areas, asthma symptoms can be more severe. Not everyone has the same symptoms when an asthma attack is coming on. Tightness in the chest, minor headaches, tingling sensation in the throat, the feeling of swollen glands and many more.
Asthma attacks can come on quickly and dont always happen the same for everyone. Some have even reported that there are many things that can trigger an asthma attack. Some common triggers include:
Control Over Asthma and Diabetes
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