Childhood Asthma And Lung Function
Studies that have investigated the impact of childhood asthma on lung function from childhood to adolescence have found that different asthma phenotypes differentially impact long-term lung function outcomes. This is particularly relevant to longitudinal asthma phenotypes, which earlier studies attempted to identify by manually classifying the change of symptoms, but more recent studies have identified distinct longitudinal phenotypes using advanced statistical techniques such as Latent Class Analysis as mentioned above. Overall, the use of LCA has led to the identification of more asthma phenotypes and therefore has helped to better disentangle the long-term effects of childhood asthma. The majority of studies have shown that persistent wheeze is related to reduced lung function development throughout adolescence , while some suggest the effects of persistent wheeze and relapsed wheeze on lung function are established from mid-childhood, without further decline in tracking of FEV1 over time . It has also been reported that childhood asthma associated with allergic comorbidities, such as eczema and allergic rhinitis, has persistent lung function impairment from birth to adolescence as compared to asthma without such comorbidities . These findings have led to the hypothesis that asthma with atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis may represent a specific phenotype originating in utero .
Four Facts About Asthma And Allergy
More than 25 million children and adults live with asthma, making it one of the most common and costly diseases.
Each year, over 3000 US asthma deaths occur. Low income and minority children bear the heaviest burden of asthma, including death.
An estimated 50 million Americans suffer from all types of allergies including indoor/outdoor, food & drug, latex, insect, skin and eye allergies.
Allergy is the 5th leading chronic disease in the U.S. among all ages, and the 3rd most common chronic disease among children under 18 years old.
The American Thoracic Society improves global health by advancing research, patient care, and public health in pulmonary disease, critical illness, and sleep disorders. Founded in 1905 to combat TB, the ATS has grown to tackle asthma, COPD, lung cancer, sepsis, acute respiratory distress, and sleep apnea, among other diseases.
AMERICAN THORACIC SOCIETY
How Common Is Asthma
- Approximately 25 million Americans have asthma. This equals to about 1 in 13 Americans, including 8 percent of adults and 7 percent of children.1
- About 20 million U.S. adults age 18 and over have asthma. 1
- Asthma is more common in adult women than adult men.1
- It is the leading chronic disease in children. 2 Currently, there are about 5.1 million children under the age of 18 with asthma. 1
- Asthma is more common in boys than girls.1
Most Recent National Asthma Data
These tables feature the latest national and state statistics on the burden of asthma among children and adults. The data are from national and state surveillance systems administered by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . Links to sources are provided with each table to assist with finding additional information on the data and relevant tables and reports.
|Characteristic2||Weighted Number with Current Asthma1||Percent|
|Below 100% of the poverty threshold||4,814,158|
|100% to less than 250% of the poverty threshold||7,837,412|
|250% to less than 450% of the poverty threshold||6,345,803|
|450% of poverty threshold or higher||6,138,494||5.9|
Abbreviations: NH = Non-Hispanic, SE = Standard Error1Includes persons who answered “yes” to the questions: “Have you EVER been told by a doctor or other health professional that you had asthma?” and “Do you still have asthma?”2Numbers within selected characteristics may not sum to total due to rounding and varying missing values.3Poverty level is based on family income and family size using the U.S. Census Bureau’s poverty thresholds. Poverty level was calculated separately using 10 imputed income files.Source: 2019 National Health Interview Survey Data, Table 3-1 and Table 4-1 .
Current Asthma1 Prevalence by Race and Ethnicity
NationalPrevalence of Asthma Attacks1 among People with Current Asthma2 by Age
Prevalence of Asthma Attacks1 among People with Current Asthma2 by Race and Ethnicity
There Are Many Different Types Of Asthma Brought On By Many Different Triggers
If youre struggling with asthma symptoms trouble breathing, a persistent cough or tightness in the chest an allergist can help you take control by providing a diagnosis and identifying the underlying causes.
Learn about the triggers and treatment for allergic asthma and how an allergist can help you manage allergy and asthma symptoms.
How Many People Die From Asthma
- On average, ten Americans die from asthma each day. In 2019, 3,524 people died from asthma. Many of these deaths are avoidable with proper treatment and care.7
- Adults are five times more likely to die from asthma than children.7
- Women are more likely to die from asthma than men, and boys are more likely than girls.7
- Black Americans are nearly three times more likely to die from asthma than white Americans.7
Food And Food Additives Trigger Asthma
Food allergies can cause mild to severe life-threatening reactions. They rarely cause asthma without other symptoms. If you have food allergies, asthma can be part of a severe, life-threatening reaction called . The most common foods associated with allergic symptoms are:
- Fresh fruits
Food preservatives can trigger isolated asthma, especially sulfite additives, like sodium bisulfite, bisulfite, sodium metabisulfite, potassium metabisulfite, and sodium sulfite, which are commonly used in food processing or preparation.
How Many People Develop Asthma For The First Time Each Year In The Uk
Around 160,000 people a year receive an asthma diagnosis. This is more than are diagnosed with any other lung condition. However, incidence rates went down by around 10% between 2008 and 2012.
We need further research to understand why. Possible reasons include:
- Asthma is becoming less common.
- Conditions like COPD are becoming less likely to be misdiagnosed as asthma.
- Better diagnosis has reduced the backlog of cases that failed to be diagnosed in the past. Consequently, only new cases are being diagnosed.
Number of people per 100,000 newly diagnosed with asthma, each year, 200412
Which Racial Or Ethnic Groups Have Higher Asthma Rates
- See AAFAs groundbreaking research report on Asthma Disparities in America.
- Racial and ethnic differences in asthma frequency, illness and death are highly connected with poverty, city air quality, indoor allergens, not enough patient education and poor health care.
- The rate of asthma and the prevalence of asthma episodes is highest among Black Americans.1
- Black children are three times as likely to have asthma compared to white children.1
- Compared to white Americans, Black Americans are five times more likely to visit the emergency department due to asthma.6
- Black Americans are nearly three times more likely to die from asthma than white Americans7
- When sex is factored in, Black females have the highest rate of fatality due to asthma. In 2019, Black women were three times more likely to die from asthma than white men.7
Effective Ways To Treat Asthma At Home
In people with asthma, the airways become narrow and produce a lot of mucus. It triggers difficulty in breathing, wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath. Several factors can increase the risk of suffering from asthma. Some of the risk factors include having a blood relative with asthma, smoking, being overweight, and passive smoking. For some people, asthma doesnt pose many problems. However, there are others who suffer from asthma attacks.
Are you tired of having to latch on to your inhaler and your asthma medications? Do not let them go just yet. Make a few changes to your lifestyle see your symptoms ease up a lot.
10 Home Remedies for Asthma are:
Occupational Asthma Is Triggered By An Irritant Youre Exposed To At Work
If your asthma started when you changed jobs, improves when youre away from your work environment, or is triggered by chemicals that make it difficult to breathe, then you may be suffering from occupational asthma.
Occupational factors are associated with up to 15 percent of disabling asthma cases in the United States. An estimated 11 million workers in a wide range of industries are exposed to at least one of the numerous agents known to be associated with occupational asthma.
More than 250 manufacturing substances have been known to exacerbate occupational asthma, such as:
What Are The Most Common Asthma Mistakes
While there are a number of common mistakes people can make in preventing and managing their asthma, here were going to look at the Top 3.
1. NOT following your Asthma Action Plan
And, by following it we mean every day! There are people who think theyre ticking along nicely with their asthma & if they havent had a flare-up for a while, theyll perhaps reduce how often they take their preventer. Or, forget entirely.
But your preventer is so crucial! It desensitises your airway, reduces inflammation and takes days or even weeks to work. So its needed every day to keep your symptoms away.
Also, if youre having to use your reliever puffer 2 or more times a week for symptoms, then your Asthma may not be under control and you need to revisit your plan with your Doctor.
2. Trying to avoid ALL triggers
Now, dont get me wrong it is incredibly important to know your triggers and manage them well. Understanding your triggers is key because it allows you to avoid your triggers where practical, or prepare you to be proactive with your management where you cant. A perfect example is using your reliever puffer prior to exercise.
3. Not using a SPACER, or using it INCORRECTLY with your reliever puffer
Using a spacer correctly ensures that a greater proportion of the medication reaches the lungs where it is needed.
So, whatever your age A SPACER IS A MUST with a MDI! Then remember that its 1 puff to 4 breaths!
How Can Adult Onset Asthma Be Managed
If you manage your asthma, you can expect to lead a normal lifestyle. Basically, there are four key steps to managing asthma successfully:
1. Learn about asthma and stay up-to-date on new developments.
2. Take prescribed medications. Dont make any changes until you check with your physician. Dont use over- the-counter medications unless prescribed by your physician!
3. Check your lungs daily at home by using a peak flow meter. Asthma patients often can detect lung changes with a peak flow meter before they actually experience any changes. Visit your physician regularly for further in-office tests. Lung testing is painless and provides valuable data that helps your physician make adjustments in your medication.
4. Make an asthma management plan with your physician. A plan establishes guidelines that tell you what to do if your asthma symptoms get worse.
Asthma Symptoms Can Mimic Other Illnesses Or Diseases Especially In Older Adults For Example:
- Hiatal hernia, stomach problems, heart failure, or rheumatic arthritis can create asthma-like symptoms.
- Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has many of the same symptoms as asthma. COPD, which includes emphysema and chronic bronchitis, is very common in older adults especially those who are or have been smokers.
What Causes Adults To Develop Asthma
At least 30% of adult asthma cases are triggered by allergies. People who are allergic to cats may have an increased risk for developing adult onset asthma. Exposure to allergens or irritants such as cigarette smoke, chemicals, mold, dust, or other substances commonly found in the persons environment might trigger the first asthma symptoms in an adult.
Prolonged exposure to certain workplace materials may set off asthma symptoms in adults.
Hormonal fluctuations in women may play a role in adult onset asthma. Some women first develop asthma symptoms during or after a pregnancy. Women going through menopause can develop asthma symptoms for the first time.
Different illnesses, viruses, or infections can be a factor in adult onset asthma. A bad cold or a bout with the flu is often a factor in adult onset asthma.
Smoking does not cause adult onset asthma; however, if you smoke or if you are exposed to cigarette smoke , it may provoke asthma symptoms.
What Is The Best Way To Live With Asthma
The key to good living with asthma is developing a strong partnership between patients, caregivers, and physicians. Practical steps include the following:
Make an asthma care management plan with your physician. An asthma management plan helps you understand what to do when specific situations arise. Each time you visit the physician, talk about your plan, and make any necessary changes.
Educate yourself. Stay informed about the latest developments in asthma and allergy care and treatment. Ask your physician about new medications or research findings that may relate to your care.
Get regular medical care. If you have asthma, you should see your physician at least once a year, even if your symptoms are under control. When you become sick, or if you have significant changes in your health, you should also talk with your physician about how your asthma could be affected.
Take your medicine. Your asthma medications will make you feel better and sometimes people think thats the time to stop. Its not! Use your medications as prescribed.
With good management, asthma symptoms can be controlled. Most people who develop adult onset asthma are able to lead normal lives. Expect success!
Reducing The Burden Of Asthma
Asthma cannot be cured, but good management with inhaled medications can control the disease and enable people with asthma to enjoy a normal, active life.
There are two main types of inhaler:
- bronchodilators , that open the air passages and relieve symptoms; and
- steroids , that reduce inflammation in the air passages. This improves asthma symptoms and reduces the risk of severe asthma attacks and death.
People with asthma may need to use their inhaler every day. Their treatment will depend on the frequency of symptoms and the different types of inhalers available.
It can be difficult to coordinate breathing using an inhaler especially for children and during emergency situations. Using a spacer device makes it easier to use an aerosol inhaler and helps the medicine to reach the lungs more effectively. A spacer is a plastic container with a mouthpiece or mask at one end, and a hole for the inhaler in the other. A homemade spacer, made from a 500-ml plastic bottle, can be as effective as a commercially-manufactured inhaler.
Access to inhalers is a problem in many countries. In 2019, only half of people with asthma had access to a bronchodilator and less than one in five had access to a steroid inhaler in public primary health-care facilities in low-income countries .
Part 1 Of 3:identifying Your Asthma Triggers
What Is The Impact Of Asthma On Disability And Premature Death
Burden of disease is a measure of healthloss attributable to specific diseases. The GBDstudy has used mortality statistics and healthsurvey data, where available, to estimate, formany countries of the world, two componentsof disease burden: Years of Life Lost due topremature death and Years of Life livedwith Disability . The latter quantifies boththe extent of disability and its duration. DisabilityAdjusted Life Years are the sum of YLL andYLD. The GBD study publishes new analyses everyfew years and the 2016 findings are the basis ofthe estimates cited below.
In 2016, asthma, across all ages, contributed23.7 million DALYs globally. This total burden ofdisease has remained unchanged since 1990,despite the substantial increase in worldpopulation over that time. Hence, the agestandardisedrate has decreased by 36% since1990. Globally, asthma ranked 28th among theleading causes of burden of disease and 27th inlow- and middle-income countries .
More than half of the global burdenattributable to asthma was due to 13.2 millionYLD. This represents a small increase in theage-standardised rate of YLD due to asthma since2006. In 2016, asthma ranked 16th in the leadingcauses of YLD globally.
Worldwide, there were 10.5 million YLLattributed to asthma-related premature deaths.This represents an age-standardised rate of 148·5YLL per 100,000 population, 26% lower in 2016compared to 2006. In 2016, asthma ranked 23rd and 31st among the leadingcauses of premature mortality .
Can Asthma Reappear In Adults After Disappearing Years Ago
Asthma is usually diagnosed in childhood. In many patients; however, the symptoms will disappear or are significantly reduced after puberty. After age 20, symptoms may begin to reappear.
Researchers have tracked this tendency for reappearing asthma and found that people with childhood asthma tend to experience reappearing symptoms through their 30s and 40s at various levels of severity.
Regardless of whether your asthma is active, you should continue to avoid your known triggers and keep your rescue medications or prescriptions up-to-date and handy in case you need them.
Are Allergies And Asthma Related
Allergies and asthma are related conditions linked by a common airway. They both affect our breathing by blocking the free passage of air between the nose and the lungs.
With allergies, the obstruction occurs in the upper area of the airway when the layers of the nose become inflamed. Sneezing helps to clear the mucus from the upper part of the airway. With asthma, the breathlessness and wheezing are caused by a narrowing of the bronchioles. Inflammation of the small airways layers may cause mucus to increase, making the obstruction worse. The dry cough that develops in the airways helps to clear out the mucus. An allergic reaction in the lungs can develop into asthma, so its important to immediately address the symptoms to control both conditions.
Did You Know:
Countries With The Highest Asthma Rates In The World
Asthma is a debilitating disease, and if you take a look at the list of countries with the highest asthma rates in the world, you will be absolutely appalled to know just how many people succumb to asthma.
Asthma is more common in children, but it can occur much later in life in adulthood as well. In the United States, there are many states where there is an alarmingly high number of children afflicted by asthma. Take a look at 10 States with The Highest Childhood Asthma Rates in The U.S., if you want to know which states fall into this category. Asthma can be an extremely difficult disease to live with, as asthma patients find it very hard to breathe during an attack. An attack can be triggered by anything from simple pollen to dust particles or even just cold weather, so it can hit you anytime, anywhere. It is extremely important for a patient to identify what triggers their attack so that they can then avoid coming into contact with those elements to keep safe. If you are an asthma patient, then you will definitely like to know about the 11 Best Cities To Live For People With Asthma In The World, as it will make your life a little easier.
Lets get our list of countries with the highest asthma rates in the world on the way.
Reduce The Spread Of The Cold Or Flu
Colds and flu can cause asthma-like symptoms. Make sure you and your child wash your hands often, with soap and warm water. Make it a habit! Use an antibacterial hand sanitizer when you dont have access to soap and water. If you have a cold, dont touch your eyes, nose, and mouth because you can spread germs.
Strategies To Reduce Asthma Burden
Strategies have been implemented globally to reduce asthma burden . In 2013, approximately 25% of countries worldwide reported having some form of national plan for adults and/or children suffering from asthma . Implementation of a national plan seems to be beneficial as demonstrated by Finland, a country estimated to have saved 300-600 million Euros a year after instituting a national initiative for asthma control . This 10-year program involved a multidisciplinary approach including physicians, nurses and pharmacists . It focused on educating primary care providers on asthma being an inflammatory disease, thus requiring early appropriate treatment . The adoption led to practice changes among healthcare providers including routine use of peak flow monitoring, early identification and treatment and pharmacists education on proper inhalation technique . These measures led to a decreased emergency room visits by 24%, a 54% reduction in hospital days and 76% drop in asthma-related disability . Other successful results have been documented in Poland, Brazil, and Portugal .
Make An Asthma Action Plan
If you dont have one already, work with your doctor to create an asthma action plan. This is something you talk about and write down. It helps you tell how well-controlled your asthma is and what to do about it. Your action plan might include:
- How much medicine to take and when
- A list of your triggers and ways to avoid them
- What to do when you have specific symptoms of trouble
How Many People Have Asthma
Establishing the proportion of the populationwho have asthma , and comparing this prevalence betweencountries, requires the use of standardisedmeasures implemented in large-scale, globalsurveys. Fortunately, we have this informationfrom separate surveys of asthma in adults andchildren, but the last surveys were about 15years ago. Questionnaires were used to measureasthma prevalence in these surveys. Althoughthis method has some limitations as an accurateway of identifying the presence of asthma inindividuals, it provides reasonable estimates ofprevalence in populations and has the advantageof being feasible for large-scale surveys.
The International Study of Asthma andAllergies in Childhood surveyed arepresentative sample of 798,685 adolescentsaged 13-14 years in 233 centres in 97 countries between 2000 and 2003. In ISAACthese adolescents were asked whether theyhad experienced wheeze, a symptom thatis commonly attributable to asthma, in thepreceding 12 months. The crucial finding was thatthe prevalence of recent wheeze varied widelybetween countries and between centres withincountries . The highest prevalence was generally observed in Englishspeakingcountries of Australasia, Europe andNorth America, and in parts of Latin America.The lowest prevalence was observed inthe Indian subcontinent, Asia-Pacific, EasternMediterranean, and Northern and Eastern Europe.
Allergies Can Cause Asthma
Allergies with asthma is a common problem. Eighty percent of people with asthma have allergies to things in the air, like tree, grass, and weed pollens; mold; animal dander; dust mites; and cockroach droppings. In one study, children with high levels of cockroach droppings in their homes were four times more likely to have childhood asthma than children with low levels. An allergy to dust mites is another common asthma trigger.
If you have asthma thatâs hard to control, see an allergist to find out if you have allergies. Treating your allergies with medication and avoiding your triggers can help lower the odds of a severe asthma attack.
Latin And Central America
In some reports, urban residency within Latin America has been found to be associated with an increased prevalence of asthma. Childhood asthma prevalence was found to be higher than 15 percent in a majority of Latin American countries. Similarly, a study published relating to asthma prevalence in Havana, Cuba estimated that approximately 9 percent of children under the age of 15 are undiagnosed for asthma, possible due to lack of resources in the region.
Advice For Friends And Family
Its important that your friends and family know how to help in an emergency.
It can be useful to make copies of your personal asthma action plan and share it with others who may need to know what to do when you have an attack.
You can photocopy your existing plan, or you could download a blank personal asthma action plan from Asthma UK and fill it in for anyone who might need a copy.
Or you could take a photo of your action plan on your phone, so you can show or send it to others easily.
Page last reviewed: 19 April 2021 Next review due: 19 April 2024