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Where Does Asthma Occur In The Lungs

Can Asthma Be Prevented

How does asthma work? – Christopher E. Gaw

Asthma cant be prevented entirely, but there are some practical ways to reduce the risk of an asthma attack and live well with asthma.

  • Get vaccinated for influenza: flu and other respiratory viruses are common triggers for asthma.
  • Manage any allergies: asthma and allergies are closely linked, so treating allergic rhinitis and avoiding or managing any allergy triggers will help with your asthma.
  • Live smoke-free: quit smoking if you smoke, and avoid any second-hand smoke .
  • Eat well: a balanced diet helps you to maintain a healthy weight. Being overweight or obese makes asthma harder to manage.
  • Care for yourself: mental health and asthma are linked, so let a trusted friend or your doctor know if you have been feeling sad or anxious, or dont enjoy things as much as before.
  • See your doctor regularly: asthma needs to be regularly assessed and managed, and your medication needs may change over time. Ensure your asthma action plan is up to date by checking in with your doctor regularly.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

includes several lung diseases that can make it harder to breathe, including chronic bronchitis and . Chronic bronchitis causes of the bronchial tubes and more mucus, both of which make it harder for your lungs to work. is generally caused by long-term exposure to things that irritate the lungs, such as cigarette smoke, but people with can also develop it.

Continued

Breathing: Normal Airways Vs Asthma Airways

Normal: In someone with optimal lung function, air is inhaled through the nose and mouth, passing through the trachea before moving into the bronchi . The bronchi branch into smaller tubes, ending in many small sacs called alveoli. Its in the alveoli that oxygen is passed to the blood and carbon dioxide is removed.

Asthma: In someone with asthma, the airways are inflamed, and when triggered, can constrict even more, obstructing airflow to the lungs.

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Four Components Of Asthma Treatment

  • The use of objective measures of lung functionspirometry, peak flow expiratory flow rateto access the severity of asthma, and to monitor the course of treatment.

  • The use of medication therapy designed to reverse and prevent the airway inflammation component of asthma, as well as to treat the narrowing airways.

  • The use of environmental control measures to avoid or eliminate factors that induce or trigger asthma flare-ups, including the consideration of immunotherapy.

  • Patient education that includes a partnership among the patient, family members, and the doctor.

  • Recommended Reading: How To Prevent Asthma Attacks

    How Do You Monitor Asthma Symptoms

    What Causes Asthma: Inflammation and Airway Narrowing

    Monitoring your asthma symptoms is an essential piece of managing the disease. Your healthcare provider may have you use a peak flow meter. This device measures how fast you can blow air out of your lungs. It can help your provider make adjustments to your medication. It also tells you if your symptoms are getting worse.

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    What Are The Symptoms

    Asthma can be different for everyone. Asthma symptoms can also vary over time, with few or no symptoms when asthma is well controlled. The common signs and symptoms of poorly controlled asthma include:

    • Shortness of breath
    • Trouble sleeping because of breathing difficulty
    • Being unable to take part in physical activities without breathing difficulty

    These symptoms can occur slowly over hours or days, or they can come on as sudden, recurring attacks after which the symptoms can persist for some time before disappearing. If left untreated, asthma can cause permanent structural changes in your airways called airway remodelling, which is why it is important to get your asthma under control and keep treating it over the long term.

    What Are The Ways To Prevent The Symptoms Of Asthma From Returning

    Avoiding the asthma triggers is an effective way to prevent flare-ups of asthma. You may not be able to entirely prevent your asthma symptoms from returning, but managing and treating your condition can help reduce their recurrence. Avoiding your triggers is one way you can help prevent asthma flare-ups. Other ways to prevent recurrence of asthma symptoms are:

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    How Do My Airways React To Triggers

    If you have asthma you have sensitive airways that are inflamed and ready to react when they come into contact with something they don’t like.

    If you come into contact with one of your asthma triggers it causes your airways to react in three ways:

  • The muscles around the walls of the airways tighten so that the airways become narrower.
  • The lining of the airways becomes inflamed and starts to swell.
  • Sticky mucus or phlegm sometimes builds up, which can narrow the airways even more.
  • These reactions in the airways make it difficult to breathe and lead to asthma symptoms, such as chest tightness, wheezing, or coughing. It can also lead to an asthma attack.

    Research For Your Health

    What happens in the lungs when an asthma attack occurs? (3D animation)

    The NHLBI is part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health the Nations biomedical research agency that makes important scientific discovery to improve health and save lives. We are committed to advancing science and translating discoveries into clinical practice to promote the prevention and treatment of heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders, including asthma. Learn about the current and future NHLBI efforts to improve health through research and scientific discovery.

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    Can Asthma Be Cured

    Here at Asthma UK we’re striving to find a cure, but currently there is no cure for asthma.

    The good news, though, is that there are lots of safe and effective treatments available to manage the symptoms.

    You just need to work with your GP or asthma nurse to find the ones that work well for you, and get into good habits so you take them exactly as prescribed, so you can get the benefits.

    What Is An Asthma Flare Up

    An asthma flare-up is when asthma symptoms start up or get worse compared to usual. The symptoms wont go away by themselves and need treatment.

    These flare-ups can happen quite quickly but they can also come on gradually over hours or days .

    The term asthma attack is confusing because it means different things to different people from a bout of wheezing after running for the bus through to being admitted to hospital for asthma.

    An asthma flare-up can become serious if not treated properly, even in someone whose asthma is usually mild or well controlled. A severe flare-up needs urgent treatment by a doctor or hospital emergency department.

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    In Focus: Students With Chronic Illnesses Feel Unsupported By University Servicesyour Browser Indicates If You’ve Visited This Link

    Three weeks ago, as her asthma symptoms flared, Communication and McCormick senior Gillian Finnegan sat in class struggling to suppress a cough. She couldn’t focus on taking her exam. All she could think about was whether the students staring at her thought she had COVID-19.

    The Daily Northwestern

    When Should You Call A Doctor For An Asthma Attack

    Why does asthma make it difficult to breathe?  How It Works

    If you think you or your child may have asthma, make an appointment with your health care provider. Some clues pointing to asthma include the following:

    • wheezing,
    • pain or tightness in your chest, and
    • recurrent, spasmodic cough that is worse at night.

    If you or your child has asthma, you should have an asthma action plan worked out in advance with your health care provider. This plan should include instructions on what to do when an asthma attack occurs, when to call the health care provider, and when to go to a hospital emergency department. The following are general guidelines only. If your provider recommends another plan for you, follow that plan.

    • Take two puffs of an inhaled beta-agonist , with one minute between puffs. If there is no relief, take an additional puff of inhaled beta-agonist every five minutes. If there is no response after eight puffs, which is 40 minutes, your health care provider should be called.
    • Your provider also should be called if you have an asthma attack when you are already taking oral or inhaled steroids or if your inhaler treatments are not lasting four hours.

    Although asthma is a reversible disease, and treatments are available, people can die from a severe asthma attack.

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      If you are in the emergency room, treatment will be started while the evaluation is still going on.

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      Control Of Polymeric Mucin Production

      The induction of Muc5ac in allergically inflamed mice is dependent upon two important signaling pathways: the IL-13/IL-4 receptor- complex and the epidermal growth factor receptor . The functional dominance of these signaling pathways, however, does not translate into a simple intracellular pathway for Muc5ac gene activation. The principal signaling molecule activated by IL-13 is signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 . STAT6 signaling in mouse airway Clara cells is necessary and sufficient for Muc5ac induction and airway hyperreactivity in response to IL-13 . STAT6 binds to a canonical motif, 5-TTCN4GAA-3, but this motif is not present in the conserved promoter regions of any mammalian MUC5AC orthologs . One indirect mechanism that may explain IL-13-mediated Muc5ac promoter activation is STAT6-dependent downregulation of forkhead box a2 . Foxa2 is a critical negative regulator of Muc5ac expression, and genetic deletion of Foxa2 in mice leads to constitutive Muc5ac overproduction resembling mucous metaplasia .

      Transcriptional control of Muc5ac production gr2

      Study Uncovers New Clues About Overproduction Of Mucus In Asthma And Copd

      In solving a 20-year mystery about the role of a protein associated with mucus production, researchers provide new insights that may lead to new treatments for asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis and other diseases.

      The researchers, from Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis , MO, report their findings in the journal eLife.

      Thomas J. Brett, senior study author and assistant professor of medicine at WUSTL, says:

      The new study lays the groundwork for developing treatments for diseases such as asthma, COPD, cystic fibrosis and even certain cancers.

      In diseases such as and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease , the body produces too much mucus, making breathing difficult.

      In cystic fibrosis, the mucus that is produced is too thick and clogs up the lungs and digestive tract.

      The significance of the new study lies in revelations about ion channels special proteins that make pores in the cell membrane and help regulate the flow of charged particles in and out of the cell.

      Ion channels allow cells to send and receive electrical signals and perform roles essential to health, such as secrete substances like mucus, control heart rhythm and support brain function.

      However, with diseases like cystic fibrosis and asthma, too much mucus that is too thick is produced, which makes breathing difficult and raises risk of infection.

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      Reactive Airways Dysfunction Syndrome

      Reactive airways dysfunction syndrome is a rapid onset and persistent asthma-like disorder that occurs in people with no history of asthma. It is a form of environmental lung disease caused by a single large exposure to nitrogen oxide or volatile organic compounds . People have symptoms similar to those of asthma, including cough, wheezing, and shortness of breath. Treatment is similar to usual treatment for asthma.

      Causes And Triggers Of Asthma

      Airways with asthma 3D animation

      Asthma is caused by swelling of the breathing tubes that carry air in and out of the lungs. This makes the tubes highly sensitive, so they temporarily narrow.

      It may happen randomly or after exposure to a trigger.

      Common asthma triggers include:

      • allergies
      • smoke, pollution and cold air
      • exercise
      • infections like colds or flu

      Identifying and avoiding your asthma triggers can help you keep your symptoms under control.

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      How Can I Stop My Asthma Getting Worse Over Time

      The best way to stop your asthma getting worse over time is to stick to a good routine of taking your preventer medicines as prescribed.

      And if you notice your symptoms are getting worse, see your GP or asthma nurse as soon as possible so they can review your treatment.

      You can also cut your risk of frequent asthma attacks, and your asthma getting worse, by stopping smoking.

      Having an asthma review at least once a year, gives you a chance to talk through any symptoms or new triggers. You can check youre on the right medicine and that youre using your inhaler in the right way to get the most benefits.

      You can also talk to your GP or asthma nurse about whether you need a higher dose or an add-on treatment to help with symptoms.

      Immune Profile In Asthmatic Children

      Figure 2. Respiratory viruses that infect upper and lower respiratory airways causing inflammatory response and exacerbating allergic asthma in children. When infectious agents such as viruses or allergens bind to their respective receptors on the surface of epithelial cells, they activate downstream signals. Upon these agents entering in asthma predisposed individuals, there is an increased tendency to produce proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-25, IL-33, or TSLP by epithelial cells. ILC2 are directly activated to produce IL-5 and IL-13, whereas TH2 cells are activated by DCs. Viral RNA or DNA can be detected by host nucleic acid receptors which help produce IFN-/ and promote anti-viral TH1 cells producing IFN-. Dysregulated antiviral response can lead to neutrophil degranulation, NETosis and exacerbation of mild or moderate responses to severe form of allergic asthma. Created with BioRender.com.

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      Why Does Someone Get It

      Over 10% of people have some history of asthma. It often runs in families. The heritable nature of asthma is not well understood, however, and geneticists cannot define the precise manner in which it is passed from parents to children. All we can say is that families with asthma are more likely to have children with asthma. Although there appears to be an inherited predisposition to develop asthma, severity varies considerably among asthmatics, even among members in the same family. If asthma is present in both parents, the likelihood of a child having asthma is even greater, but even then not all of the children will have asthma. Even among identical twins, both do not necessarily have asthma, although this is more likely than if they were just siblings or nonidentical twins. This suggests that there is some additional factor that we do not yet fully understand, other than inheritance, that influences the development of asthma.

      Signs Symptoms And Complications

      Severe Asthma in Children  Pediatric Pulmonologists in Plano

      How often signs and symptoms of asthma occur may depend on how severe, or intense, the asthma is and whether you are exposed to allergens. Some people have symptoms every day, while others have symptoms only a few days of the year. For some people, asthma may cause discomfort but does not interfere with daily activities. If you have more severe asthma, however, your asthma may limit what you are able to do.

      When asthma is well controlled, a person shows few symptoms. When symptoms worsen, a person can have what is called an asthma attack, or an exacerbation. Over time, uncontrolled asthma can damage the airways in the lungs.

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      Monitoring Asthma At Home

      Some people use a handheld peak flow meter to evaluate their breathing and determine when they need intervention, before their symptoms become severe. People who experience frequent, severe asthma attacks should know how to reach help quickly.

      Peak expiratory flow can be measured using a small handheld device called a peak flow meter. This test can be used at home to monitor the severity of asthma. Usually, peak flow rates are lowest between 4 AM and 6 AM and highest at 4 PM. However, more than a 30% difference in rates at these times is considered evidence of moderate to severe asthma. People with moderate to severe asthma, particularly those who need daily treatment to control symptoms, often use a peak flow meter to take measurements and compare them to their personal best to help identify signs of worsening asthma or the onset of an asthma attack.

      All people with asthma should have a written treatment action plan that was devised in collaboration with their doctor. Such a plan allows them to take control of their own treatment and has been shown to decrease the number of times people need to seek care for asthma in the emergency department.

      The Normal Respiratory System

      To understand what happens in asthma you need to be familiar with the normal breathing system and how the lungs and airways are arranged.

      Normally, air entering through the mouth and nose travels through the main airway through a series of smaller branching airways called bronchi. The bronchi divide up into even smaller airways called bronchioles, which end in millions of tiny air sacs called alveoli.

      When air enters the alveoli, the oxygen it contains passes through the thin membrane covering each sac into surrounding blood vessels. The oxygen attaches itself to red blood cells which then circulate around the body, releasing the oxygen into the body tissues.

      What happens during an asthma attack?

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      What Does Control Of Asthma Mean

      • The ability to deal with acute exacerbations of asthma so that the need for urgent medical care is prevented
      • Prevention of hospitalization for asthma
      • Tolerating all normal activities up to and including competitive athletics if otherwise able
      • The avoidance of symptoms that interfere with sleep.
      • Normal pulmonary physiology .
      • These goals should be reached safely and with the least interference with a normal life-style. The risks and bother of the treatment must be carefully weighed against the risk and bother of the asthma. The benefit obtained from the treatment must be worth any inconvenience and potential medication risks imposed by the treatment.

      In other words, it is the goal of treatment to determine the simplest, safest therapeutic measures that minimize disability, normalize lung function, avoid the need for acute medical care of asthma, and permit a normal life.

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