Which Strains Of Bacteria Were Studied
Ten trials used the Lactobacillus species of probiotics, one used the Bifidobacterium species, six used probiotic mixtures, and two used separate Lactobacillus species and Bifidobacterium species arms compared with 1 placebo group. 13 of the trials, encompassing a total of 4021 children, compared probiotic supplements with a placebo.
The researchers also noted that the properties of different probiotic species can vary and may be strain-specific. For example, an animal study looking at allergic asthma noted positive results from the use of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG® but not Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1® . Learn more about the research behind Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG® and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1® on the Probiotics Database.
One of the clinical trials, Wickens et al 3, used separate Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 groups and compared these with one placebo group. The results indicated that L. rhamnosus HN001 showed promise in preventing the development of eczema and atopic syndrome in children thought to be at risk of developing allergies however, a similar effect was not noted for B. lactis HN019, once again indicating that potential benefits may be species specific. Learn more about the research behind Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 on the Probiotics Database.
The researchers concluded that future studies are needed in order to further explore strain-specific properties in asthma support.
The Lung Microbiome Associated With Established Asthma And Atopy In Adults
The respiratory microbiome in adults with established asthma has a lower bacterial diversity compared to healthy subjects and an increased richness, both correlating to asthma severity . Several groups have reported an increased abundance of the phylum Proteobacteria, and in particular the genus Haemophilus in asthmatics . Additionally, Huang and colleagues found that higher abundance of Proteobacteria was related to lower asthma control and asthma exacerbations which was accompanied by the induction of Th17-related genes . Especially, enrichment of Haemophilus and Moraxella, both belonging to the class of Gammaproteobacteria, were associated with severe airway obstruction and airway neutrophilia . Most of the mechanistic studies on the influence of airway microbiome on asthma development were conducted in murine models . One of the few mechanistic approaches in human adult asthma related the finding of increased Haemophilus parainfluenzae with in vitro studies . The authors could demonstrate that Haemophilus parainfluenzae was able to activate Toll-like receptor 4, which subsequently led to transcription of pro-inflammatory factors such as IL-8 and at the same time inhibited corticosteroid-related pathways. The induction of corticosteroid resistance is an important factor as corticosteroid treatment is one of the mainstay treatments in asthma and inflammation.
Gut Health Histamine & Probiotics
Having robust gut health isn’t just about taking the right probiotic.
There is a reason that allergy symptoms and digestive symptoms are often intertwined, and thats histamine.
When histamine and poor gut health combine they can not only cause increased allergy symptoms but digestive problems like bloating, cramping, trouble digesting food, and acid reflux.
Excess histamine can even play a role in autoimmune diseases like Crohn’s disease and arthritis.
Addressing the root cause will be key in not only reducing your seasonal allergies, but will help you feel better overall.
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How Is A Probiotic Taken
Probiotics can come in capsule form, powder form or be included in food items like yogurt and cheese. Physicians prescribe this supplement to patients that are undergoing antibiotic treatment. Every person needs a different amount, so its always better to consult your physician for the dosage and amount.
People are learning about the great health benefits of probiotics. They are choosing foods containing these good bacteria to strengthen their immune systems and live a healthier life.
How Allergies Cause Histamine
Histamine is released when a perceived threat or foreign substance is detected entering the body.
These foreign substances can be things like dust, pollen, and foods we eat every day.
When a foreign substance is detected, mast cells release histamine to tell your body to respond to the threat.
In response to histamine release, surrounding blood vessels dilate, increasing white blood cells and blood plasma proteins in that area.
Immune system proteins bind with the invading foreign substance .
When allergies cause severe symptoms, it can be a consequence of your immune system overreacting to the perceived foreign invader.
This overreaction could be due to many factors but in the case of seasonal allergies, it is usually because the body can’t keep up with the number of perceived threats flooding your system.
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Effect Of Probiotic And Prebiotic Treatments On Cytokines Levels
The effects of probiotics and prebiotics on Th2-related inflammatory and pro-inflammatory cytokines in BALF were analyzed by ELISA. The levels of all the cytokines analyzed in our study increased significantly after sensitization/challenge with OVA and also OVA-LPS as compared to their levels in normal control animals. Substantial reductions were observed in the BALF of pro- and pre-biotic treated animals regarding the levels of IL-4 , IL-5 , IL-13 , IL-17 , IL-25 , and IL-33 as compared to OVA-LPS induced asthmatic mice . The level of IL-17 was significantly decreased only in probiotics treated group, and treatment with prebiotics had no significant effect on decreasing of IL-17 level. Besides the induction of Th2-type inflammatory cytokines, allergen sensitization and provocation also significantly decreased IFN- level, a Th1-type cytokine, in the BALF. The levels of IFN- considerably increased in the animals treated with either probiotics or prebiotics compared to the non-treated asthma group , demonstrating that both the prophylactic treatments had the ability to modulate immune reactions by balancing Th1/Th2 responses in lungs .
Collection Of Balf And Differential Cell Count
After anaesthetization, 24 h after the last challenge, the mice were euthanized by CO2 then tracheotomy was performed. Lungs were lavaged for three times with 1.0 ml aliquots of PBS via a cannulated tracheal tube . Afterward, BALF was pooled and cryocentrifuged . The supernatant was separated and stored at 80 °C for immune-biochemical analyses while the cell sediment was used for cell/gene expression studies.
To perform a differential cell count, a total of 24×104 BALF cells were placed on a slide and centrifuged using a cytospin machine. The slides were dried, and cells were stained using Giemsa. The absolute number of Eos was determined by microscopical analysis.
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New Research: Probiotics Vs Asthma
There has been a sharp rise in asthma cases in children in the last 10 years, with the latest figures showing that one in eleven children in the UK are being diagnosed with asthma1. Sadly, approximately three people die in the UK of an asthma attack every year, and this has made clinical research into the support and prevention of asthma symptoms more important than ever.
A new clinical study2, released on the 18th January, looks into the association between probiotic supplementation and asthma incidence in infants using a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.
The Role Of Gut Microbiota In Allergic Conditions
The gut microbiota is the normal microorganisms that colonize the human intestine are in a symbiotic relationship with the body and are diverse and abundant. There is evidence that more than 50 diseases are associated with dysbiosis of the gut microbiota, such as many infectious diseases, liver diseases, gastrointestinal malignancies, metabolic disorders, and allergic diseases . The colonization of gut microbiota early in life affects the immune status during childhood, and early gut microecological dysregulation due to various factors may disrupt the homeostatic regulatory mechanisms between Th1/Th2 cells, which in turn may negatively affect the development of immune tolerance and may eventually activate the allergic process, increase the risk of allergy, and thus induce and exacerbate allergic diseases .
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What Are Common Symptoms Of Asthma
Asthma can cause a wide range of symptoms that vary from person to person. Some of the most common asthma symptoms include:
- Chest tightness
- Breathing problems, including shortness of breath, gasping for air, or rapid short breaths
- Wheezing or whistling sounds while breathing in and out
- Frequent chest colds
Asthma can cause some symptoms more specific to infants and young children, such as trouble with eating and sucking. People with chronic asthma may also suffer from dark circles under the eyes and exhaustion due to the added physical and mental stress that ongoing asthma symptoms can cause.
The main symptom that most people think about in relation to asthma is an asthma attack. These can be very scary experiences, as those suffering from asthma attacks can feel like they are unable to draw in or expel a full breath. It is often described as feeling like breathing through a straw, suffocating, or drowning.
Most asthma attacks pass within a few minutes, but they can be dangerous enough to require medical intervention in some cases. If the breathing difficulty is debilitating, lasts for longer than a few minutes, isnt helped at all by an inhaler, or if there is any kind of blue tinge on or around the lips, an ambulance should be called immediately.
Best Strains Of Probiotics For Allergies
Just as important as building up your microbiome and treating any underlying infection is to not take anything that will make it harder for your body to deal with seasonal allergies.
The list below can be problematic for those with seasonal allergies as they either produce histamine themselves or degrade histamine.
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Effect Of Probiotic And Prebiotic Treatment On Balf Cells And Epo Activity
The recruitment of activated eosinophils to airways is a characteristic feature of asthma. Eosinophils from patients with allergic asthma have been reported to excessively produce ROS via multiple mechanisms that are known to contribute to airway inflammation and remodeling. In our study, a significant increase in the eosinophil count of the BALF was observed in OVA-LPS challenged mice as compared to normal healthy animals . We also found that treatment with probiotics markedly decreased the recruitment of eosinophils in the BALF of asthmatic animals . Prebiotic treatment also decreased eosinophilic infiltration into BALF , but the result was not statistically significant compared to the non-treated asthma control group. In this study, a significant increase in the neutrophils count of the BALF was observed in groups that were challenged with LPS compared to PBS and OVA groups. Treatment with probiotics and prebiotics could significantly control neutrophils infiltration to the BALF.
EPO plays an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma by mediating oxidative events, leading to the production of ROS and RNS. A considerable reduction of EPO was observed in OVA-LPS sensitized mice after oral treatment with probiotics compared to the non-treated asthma group . These results implicated that probiotics could have antioxidant properties by reducing EPO activity. Prebiotics however, had no significant effects on EPO activity.
Functional Medicine For Allergy Symptoms
Functional medicine is best suited to problems that are overlooked by conventional medicine.
Rather than prescribe an antihistamine or a pharmaceutical as the first step, we investigate why you are having these symptoms and in most cases, we can relieve symptoms naturally.
I offer online and in-person functional medicine appointments. During your hour-long new patient appointment we go over your entire medical history, family history, medical history, previous testing and current symptoms and goals. Based on what we find, I can order the specific testing to confirm your diagnosis and evaluate your physiology from a holistic perspective. Most of the underlying problems I find relating to severe seasonal allergy symptoms can be treated naturally and patients start to see symptom relief within weeks.
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The Probiotics In Pediatric Asthma Management Study In The Primary Care Setting: A Randomized Controlled Double
1Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, University of Milan, Milan, Italy
2Pediatric Primary Care ASL Napoli 2, Naples, Italy
3Research and Development, Probiotical Research, Novara, Italy
4Health Science Department, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy
5Departments of Microbiology, Immunology and Surgery, Western University, London, ON, Canada
6Allergy Clinic, Casa di Cura Villa Montallegro, Genoa, Italy
Asthma, including wheezing, represents a severe global health problem and a relevant burden for the healthcare system, as underscored by the 2021 Global Initiative for Asthma guidelines . Children with asthma usually have a type-2 phenotype and consequently are prone to have frequent respiratory infections . Moreover, asthma exacerbations often follow acute respiratory infections in childhood . As a result, modulation of the immune response and prevention of respiratory infections assume an essential role in the therapeutical strategy.
2. Materials and Methods
The PROPAM study was designed as a randomized, placebo-controlled, and double-blind trial. The primary outcome was the reduction of asthma exacerbations, considering the number, duration , and severity of asthma attacks. The severity was assessed using the scoring provided by the Italian Society of Pediatrics . It was graded as mild, moderate, and severe.
The secondary outcome was the reduction of drugs used in maintenance and as needed for asthma exacerbations.
Guidelines Recommendations: Over To Scientific Societies
- The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology stated in its food allergy and anaphylaxis guidelines on primary prevention of allergy, that there is no evidence to recommend prebiotics or probiotics or other dietary supplements based on particular nutrients to prevent food allergy in at risk groups and in the general population .
- The Nutrition Committee of the European Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition concluded 2011 after a systematic literature review on the effect of infant formula supplemented with prebiotics or probiotics on the preventive effect on allergy, that there is too much uncertainty to draw reliable conclusions from the available data .
- The World Allergy Organization suggested 2015 on their guidelines on the prevention of allergy to consider using probiotics in:
- women pregnant with children with high risk for allergy,
- women who breastfeed infants at high risk of developing allergy, and
- infants at risk of developing allergies, because there is a net benefit resulting in primary prevention of eczema .
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Probiotics For Prevention Of Asthma And Eczema
In general, preventive strategies for asthma and allergic disorders have been proposed in 2014 :
- General health education: avoidance of tobacco smoke exposure during pregnancy and after birth.
- Primary prevention for infants at higher risk. Several longitudinal birth cohort studies have clearly demonstrated an increased risk of allergic manifestations if one or two parents are or have been affected themselves.
- Secondary prevention strategies for children who have already developed allergic sensitization or the first manifestations of allergic diseases those strategies aim to reduce the incidence of clinical manifestations, such as rhinitis, food allergy, or asthma.
Pre-clinical studies have shown that modifying the microbiota could modulate the global immune response of the host, thus reducing sensitization and allergic inflammation . Many studies have suggested the hypothesis that pre- and probiotics might be protective for asthma.
Specifically, in pediatric asthma, LGG was reported to reduce the concentration of exhaled nitric oxide among 4- to 7-year-olds , but these results could not be replicated .
Early administration of Lactobacillus reuteri to infants did not result in a reduction of asthma , nor did Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 or Lactobacillus paracasei spp. paracasei F19 .
A more prolonged gut microbiota management could achieve a long-lasting impact .
Effects Of Probiotics On Infant Asthma
Asthma was reported in two papers , both from the same study, and wheeze was reported in one paper . Dotterud et al. reported that there was no effect on asthma in either intention to treat or complete case analysis. Simpson et al. reported in their follow-up to Dotterud et al. that the intervention had no effect on incidence of asthma. Wickens et al. also reported that probiotic intervention had no effect on wheeze.
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How Gut Health Is Connected To Asthma
This probably isnt surprising to read if youve checked out some of our other blogs, but most health conditions can be tied back to gut health in some way, and asthma is no exception.
Respiratory health, in general, can be tied to gut health due to the connection between gut health and immune health. 60-70% of the bodys immune system is in or around the gut. The gut serves as the barrier between the outside world and the rest of your body. When your gut is damaged, it can lead to all kinds of health issues. One such issue is a leaky gut syndrome, a condition in which the gut barrier is broken down, allowing substances that are normally kept out of the body by the gut barrier to enter. A leaky gut results in undesirable substances crossing through the gut barrier and into the bloodstream where they can cause direct harm and trigger autoimmune responses. A leaky causes a much higher risk for autoimmune conditions and an increased likelihood to develop conditions like asthma.
People with asthma tend to have higher levels of specific bad bacteria and lower levels of some of the more beneficial probiotic bacteria like Bifidobacterium bifidum. Research has shown that children with a better balance of good bacteria in their guts are less likely to develop asthma than children with poor bacterial balance. Individuals with asthma are also likely to have more severe symptoms if their guts have poor bacterial makeup than individuals with healthier guts.
Probiotics In Asthma And Allergy Prevention
- 1Division of Allergy, Bambino Gesù Childrens Hospital, Vatican City, Vatican City
- 2Department of Pediatrics, Salvini Hospital, Milan, Italy
Interest in probiotic research and its potential benefits in infant foods are relatively recent but significantly increasing. The evolution of the knowledge in the last 20 years demonstrated that alterations in the microbiome may be a consequence of events occurring during infancy or childhood, including prematurity, cesarean section, and nosocomial infections. Several pieces of evidence prove that a healthy intestinal microbiota facilitates the development of immune tolerance. Interventional studies suggest that probiotics could be protective against the development of many diseases. Nevertheless, many factors complicate the analysis of dysbiosis in subjects with food allergy. Comparison in-between studies are difficult, because of considerable heterogeneity in study design, sample size, age at fecal collection, methods of analysis of gut microbiome, and geographic location. Currently, there is no positive recommendation from scientific societies to use pre- or probiotics for treatment of food allergy or other allergic manifestations, while their use in prevention is being custom-cleared. However, the recommendation is still based on little evidence. Although there is valid scientific evidence in vitro, there is no sufficient information to suggest the use of specific probiotics in allergy and asthma prevention.
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