Saturday, October 15, 2022
HomeHealthIs Asthma Considered High Risk For Covid

Is Asthma Considered High Risk For Covid

Complications Of Asthma And Covid

Are asthma patients at greater risk from coronavirus?

When any type of respiratory virus is present within the local community, people with asthma should take precautions. Respiratory viruses can trigger and worsen asthma symptoms, potentially affecting your nose, throat, and lungs.

In severe cases, there is also a risk that COVID-19 could cause an asthma attack, lead to pneumonia, or lead to acute respiratory disease. Asthma is not considered to increase your risk of catching the virus, having worse symptoms, or prolonging recovery from COVID-19.

However, children with some underlying medical conditions are more at risk of severe illness than those without. Still, the evidence on which underlying medical conditions are associated with increased risk in children is limited.

Symptoms of asthma and COVID-19 can be similar, making it difficult to differentiate between the conditions. However, the Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America advises that:

  • Coughing is a symptom commonly seen in both conditions.
  • Other common asthma symptoms such as wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and rapid breathing may sometimes be seen in COVID-19.
  • Fever is often present with COVID-19 but rarely associated with asthma.
  • Weakness and fatigue can sometimes be associated with both conditions.
  • Loss of smell, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, body aches, headaches, and a sore throat are sometimes seen in COVID-19 but not associated with asthma.

Tips For Wearing A Face Mask With Asthma

The Public Health Agency of Canada currently recommends that Canadians wear non-medical face masks while in public spaces where physical distancing cannot be maintained such as on public transit, or at the grocery store.

Be sure to check your provincial or territorial authority for up-to-date guidance.

Wearing a face mask is NOT a substitute for physical distancing or frequent handwashing. Wearing a non-medical face mask is an extra measure that can be taken to protect those around you. When worn properly, a person wearing a non-medical mask can reduce the spread of their own infectious respiratory droplets.

Make sure you wear your mask properly. It should cover both your nose and mouth. If your mask gets soiled or wet, be sure to wash and dry it before wearing it again. You can read information about appropriate use of non-medical masks, and how to properly place, remove and clean a non-medical mask from the Public Health Agency of Canada.

The vast majority of people with asthma can wear a non-medical mask safely. If you are unable to wear a non-medical mask without experiencing breathing issues, do not wear a mask. Instead, make sure you are practicing physical distancing by maintaining a 2-metre distance. Schedule an appointment with your healthcare provider as soon as possible to go over your Asthma Action Plan and review your asthma symptoms and control. Your healthcare provider may suggest or ask you to consider other options to protect yourself.

What Studies Have Found

In a press release for the George Institute study, Dr. Anthony Sunjaya, a lead study author and a researcher in the George Institutes respiratory division, explained there were early concerns that people with asthma may be at higher risk of contracting the new coronavirus and becoming sicker or dying from COVID-19 if they did contract it.

People with chronic respiratory conditions like asthma were previously reported to be at greater risk during the Middle East respiratory syndrome outbreak, caused by a virus with a similar structure, he wrote.

Also, respiratory infections like those caused by coronaviruses can exacerbate asthma symptoms and corticosteroid treatment may increase susceptibility to COVID-19 infection and its severity, he added.

The researchers wanted to present the best available evidence on the risk of infection, severe illness requiring admission to ICU or ventilator use, and death from COVID-19 in people who have asthma.

Asthma causes a persons airway to become inflamed or swell and produce mucus, all of which make it difficult to breathe and can impair routine activities.

Data from more than 300,000 people with COVID-19 from Asia, Europe, and North and South America was analyzed. The study participants had similar proportions of asthma to the general population.

About 7 in every 100 people in the study who tested positive for COVID-19 also had asthma, compared with about 8 in 100 in the general population, a study author said.

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Coronavirus : What People With Asthma Need To Know

We added the following updates to this blog post:

  • FDA approval of the COVID-19 vaccine from Pfizer-BioNTech
  • Information on the delta variant of the coronavirus
  • New recommendation for fully vaccinated people to wear a mask in public indoor settings in areas of high transmission.
  • Vaccine recommendations for pregnant and recently pregnant people

Note:Because this is a constantly changing situation, any data in this blog post may not represent the most up-to-date information. We will update this blog when possible.

Recommendations For High Risk Patients

Asthma and Coronavirus: A Deadly Combination?

Our recommended next steps for all Asthma and COPD patients are outlined below.

These steps are relevant to all patients with Asthma and COPD. In addition, high risk patients may need individually tailored advice. How each practice undertakes provision of this advice will vary, but ideally a telephone or conference call with each patient and a nurse or GP as soon as you have availability. This call/communication should cover 9 key areas:

  • Check that they have an adequate supply of maintenance and reliever medication.
  • Encourage special care to keep their asthma/COPD well controlled. Remind them that they should not stop or change their maintenance medication, but take it regularly to keep them well, including inhaled steroids.
  • Advise, where appropriate, that they monitor and record peak flow charts and use these in conjunction with their action plan.
  • Direct them to guidance on how to use inhalers so that they can check they are using their inhalers correctly.
  • Ensure they have a personal action plan and understand for what to do if their asthma and/or COPD gets worse this must be written and easily accessible.
  • Prescribe rescue medication for use according to the instructions in their action plan oral steroids should be used with caution because of the risks outlined below.
  • Encourage patients to stop or reduce smoking, take exercise , and keep well hydrated.
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    Is There An Influence Of A T2 Response

    Kimura et al. demonstrated that type 2 inflammation reduces ACE2 and increases TMPRSS2 expression in nasal and bronchial epithelial cells in asthma and atopy. These ex vivo observations are supported by the analysis of two databases, which included children and adults with type 2 rhinitis and asthma, and showed similar results. In contrast, ACE2 receptors are upregulated by type 1 IFNs, suggesting that Th1/Th2 balance may influence the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection . Children have less potent pathogen-associated molecular patterns activation, suboptimal and Th2 skewed cytokine production, all possibly resulting in a lower inflammatory immune response. This confers decreased protection against infection during childhood, but seems beneficial in the prevention of an inflammatory response in COVID-19. Hence, a preferential Th2-skewed cytokine production observed in children is presumably protective against SARS-CoV-2 infection .

    Follow The Recommendations Below To Reduce Your Chance Of An Asthma Attack While Cleaning Follow Recommendations For Cleaning Your Home And In Your Facility

    • If you have asthma:
    • Ask an adult without asthma to clean and disinfect surfaces and objects for you.
    • Stay in another room when cleaners or disinfectants are being used and right after their use.
    • Use cleaning agents and disinfectant only when necessary. In routine situations, high-touch surfaces and objects might be cleaned effectively with soap and water.
    • Make a list of the urgent care or health facilities near you that provides nebulizer/asthma treatments and keep it close to your phone.
    • If you have an asthma attack, move away from the trigger, such as the cleaning agent or disinfectant or the area that was disinfected. Follow your Asthma Action Plan. Call 911 for medical emergencies.
  • The person cleaning and disinfecting should:
  • Choose disinfectants that are less likely to cause an asthma attack, using Environmental Protection Agency s list of approved productsexternal icon, such as:
  • Products with hydrogen peroxide or ethanol
  • Products that do NOT contain peroxyacetic acid or peracetic acid.
  • Limit use of chemicals that can trigger asthma attacks, such as bleach or quaternary ammonium compounds , and do not use them in enclosed spaces.
  • Follow additional precautions for cleaning and disinfecting places where people with asthma might be, to reduce exposure to asthma triggers.
  • Use products safely and correctly:
  • Always read and follow the directions on the product label to ensure you are using it safely and effectively.
  • Make sure there is enough air flow .
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    Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome Presentation In Children

    Although acute SARS-CoV-2 infection tends to be mild or symptom-free in most pediatric cases, several reports of a multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children , temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2, with overlapping features of atypical Kawasaki disease , toxic shock syndrome and macrophage activation syndrome , have started to appear in the literature . The CDC case definition for MIS-C comprises: age < 21 years, fever, severe illness with two or more organ systems affected, laboratory evidence of inflammation, laboratory or epidemiologic evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection and no other alternative diagnosis . Cytopenias distinguished MIS-C from KD and the degree of hyperferritinemia and the pattern of cytokine production differs MIS-C from MAS .

    Asthma Treatments And Covid

    Why data shows asthma patients are not suffering from severe complications of coronavirus

    The CDC advises that you should not stop any of your asthma medications or make changes to your asthma treatment plan without talking to your healthcare provider first. Asthma medication is not considered to interfere with COVID-19 outcomes or prognosis.

    Continuing to take your asthma medication as prescribed will help you reduce the risk of triggering an asthma attack. The AAAAI states that the best thing a person with asthma can do during the pandemic is to keep their asthma under control.

    The CDC offers the following tips for keeping asthma under control:

    • Do not make any changes to your asthma medication without consulting a medical professional.
    • Continue to take all of your prescribed asthma medication as normal, and know how to use your inhaled medication effectively.
    • Follow your asthma action plan.
    • Always carry your reliever inhaler with you in case symptoms are triggered.
    • Ask your doctor for a 30-day emergency supply of your asthma medication to keep at home if you have to quarantine for a long time.
    • Try to avoid asthma triggers and reduce stress where possible.
    • Ensure that you speak with your doctor about recommended vaccinations to help you stay healthy.

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    What Should I Do If Im Not Fully Vaccinated Against Covid

    If you have not received a COVID-19 shot yet, plan to get vaccinated as soon as possible. People who are unvaccinated are at the highest risk of getting the delta variant of the coronavirus, spreading it to other people, and becoming hospitalized and/or dying of the virus. If you believe you are not eligible for the vaccine due to your medical conditions, talk with your doctor to see what options may be available to you.

    People who are pregnant or thinking of becoming pregnant should get the COVID-19 vaccine. Pregnant people are at a higher risk for severe COVID-19 when compared to non-pregnant people.1 Recent pregnancy may also raise a personâs risk for developing severe COVID-19. If you get COVID-19 while pregnant, you are at increased risk for preterm birth and other poor pregnancy outcomes.2

    If you are not fully vaccinated, you will need to continue to take steps to slow the spread of the coronavirus. This includes wearing a mask, staying 6 feet apart, avoiding crowds and poorly ventilated spaces, and washing your hands often with soap and water.

    Fully vaccinated people with delta variant breakthrough infections can spread the virus to other people.

    I Have Asthma Is It Safe To Get The Vaccine

    People with asthma, including people with severe asthma,should feel confident about accessing these vaccinesalongside other Australians andsome maybeconsidered a priority for the early phases of the rollout. It is important to have these discussions with your treating health professional, so together you candetermineyour options based on yourindividual circumstances.

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    Taking All Asthma Medications As Directed

    People with asthma should continue to take all asthma medications, including rescue inhalers, steroid inhalers, steroid pills, and biologics as directed. Uncontrolled asthma is a serious health threat for people with asthma. The AAFA recommend that individuals have a 1430-day supply of their medications.

    The CDC advise people to follow an asthma action plan. People can find a list of resources on their website .

    An asthma action plan is a personalized plan that people can follow to control their asthma and prevent asthma attacks. This includes:

    • having a good supply of medication
    • knowing how to use an inhaler correctly
    • avoiding asthma triggers
    • alcohol or food additives, such as sulfites

    People At Increased Risk For Severe Illness

    Coronavirus may be less common among people with asthma

    If you are unvaccinated, the risk for more severe illness from COVID-19 increases with age and is higher for people of any age with certain underlying medical conditions. Severe illness means that the person with COVID-19 may need:

    • hospitalization
    • a ventilator or special equipment to help them breathe
    • or they may even die

    If you are unvaccinated and in one of these groups, take these extra precautions in addition to general prevention steps.

    • Talk to your health care provider about getting the COVID-19 vaccine and if other whether your vaccinations are up-to-date.
    • Continue your medications and do not change your treatment plan without talking to your health care provider.
    • Have at least a two-week supply of prescription and non-prescription medications. Consider having your medications delivered.
    • Do not delay getting emergency care for any underlying medical condition because of COVID-19.

    Find support if you are affected by asthma, lung disease, diabetes, smoking or tobaccoor heart disease.

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    General Precautions For People With Respiratory Conditions

    General tips for those with chronic respiratory illnesses such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease , idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and cystic fibrosis include the following:

    • Take your medication as prescribed and manage your symptoms as well as you can.
    • Get the flu shot. If you have flu symptoms call your doctor. There are treatments for the flu. However, a flu shot will not protect you against COVID-19.
    • Get the pneumococcal vaccine if recommended by your provider. This will also not protect you against COVID-19, though.
    • If you smoke, theres never been a better time to stop. Smoking will increase your risk of severe illness and death from COVID-19.

    People Who May Be More Affected By Covid

    Opportunities for better health begin in our families, neighborhoods, schools and jobs. Things like lack of access to medical care, healthy food or quality housing, are inequities that can make people more at risk for getting COVID-19 or having a more severe illness. Read more from the CDC about:

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    We Need To Also Pay Attention To Racial Disparities In Asthma

    Additionally, we know that there is a distinct racial disparity when it comes to asthma prevalence and complications. People of colorparticularly black peoplehave higher rates of prevalence, emergency department admission, and deaths related to asthma than white people, according to data from the CDC. This, unfortunately, mirrors the racial disparity we are beginning to see in the hospitalization and death rates for those infected with COVID-19.

    The disparities seen in asthma outcomes and COVID-19 outcomes are very much in alignment, Dr. Neptune says. If you have an underlying respiratory or cardiorespiratory disorder and you’re not getting optimal treatment, you’re clearly going to have a much greater likelihood of becoming much more symptomatic and much more impaired if you develop a COVID-19 infection.

    Although we dont know the exact mechanisms underlying these differences, they likely stem from similar systemic issues.

    Asthmas disproportionate burden on black and Puerto Rican individuals is well established, and it can be attributed to a variety of factorsfrom barriers to accessing care, to a lack of asthma education and management programs in certain communities, to socioeconomic and behavioral causes.

    What Are The Symptoms Of Covid

    COVID-19 could be more severe in people with asthma

    In December 2019, a new coronavirus named SARS-CoV-2 started spreading and triggered a pandemic . This new coronavirus causes an illness known as COVID-19.

    Now, some new strains of the coronavirus, such as the delta variant, are spreading. It is normal for a virus to change over time. The new versions are âvariantsâ or âmutations.â Some information shows that the new coronavirus strains may spread more easily than the original strain of the coronavirus.

    According to the CDC and the World Health Organization , COVID-19 symptoms can include:

    • Fever
    • Painful blue or purple lesions on toes
    • Hives or rashes

    If you or someone you know has these emergency warning signs, call 911 or go to the emergency room immediately:

    • Trouble breathing or shortness of breath
    • Pain or pressure in the chest that doesnât go away
    • Newly confused
    • Canât wake up or stay awake
    • Pale, gray, or bluish tint on lips, face, or fingernails, depending on skin tone

    According to the CDC, this list may not include all symptoms. If you have any symptoms that are severe or concerning, call your doctor.

    The CDC warns that symptoms may appear two to 14 days after coming in contact with the virus. For many people, they may not have any symptoms at all but can still spread the virus.

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