Does Your Standard Of Living Affect Your Chances Of Having Asthma In The Uk
In 2012 incidence rates were 36% higher in the most deprived communities than in the least deprived. Prevalence is around 11% higher. These trends are broadly consistent over time. Higher levels of damp housing and fungal spores, pollution and second-hand smoke among more deprived groups could be contributing factors. But further research is needed to fully understand this link.
Number of people per 100,000 ever diagnosed with asthma, by standard of living, 200412
Find out how the standard of living figures were calculated: Methodology – standard of living
Risk Factors And Triggers
Women tend to have a higher risk of developing severe asthma than men. Other risk factors include obesity, cigarette smoking, and poor adherence to treatment. Your risk also increases if you have other health conditions such as sinusitis, nasal polyps, or chronic lung disease.
Some potential triggers for severe asthma include indoor allergens like dust mites and pet dander. Outdoor allergens include pollens and molds. Environmental irritants like pollution or chemicals in the workplace can trigger asthma. Other triggers include high levels of stress, breathing in cold and dry air, and contracting a respiratory virus.
- straining your chest muscles in order to breathe
- pale skin, lips, or fingernails that may turn blue in color
- little or no improvement after using your rescue inhaler
If you experience any of the above symptoms of a severe asthma attack, its important that you call 911 or go to a hospital to receive treatment right away.
Treatment for severe asthma varies from person to person. Your doctor will help you decide which treatment is best for you depending on the intensity of your symptoms and how you respond to certain medications.
Some types of severe asthma medications include:
- inhaled corticosteroids
Making the following changes to your lifestyle can also help with your severe asthma treatment:
How Do Asthma And Asthma Outcomes Differ By Race/ethnicity
African Americans are more likely to have asthma than either Caucasians or Hispanics, but asthma has increased across all three ethnic groups. Females, black people, and Puerto Ricans are more likely to have asthma, as well. Among Hispanic individuals, Puerto Ricans are more likely to have asthma than Mexicans.2
Non-Hispanic blacks, both adults and male children, are more likely to die from asthma than other groups.
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The Top 10 Statistics On Asthma
- 8.4% of American children and 7.7% of American adults have asthma.
- At the moment, there are around 6.2 million underaged Americans with asthma.
- 31.1% of children aged 4 or younger had to visit urgent care centers or emergency departments due to asthma attacks.
- Approximately 10 Americans die from the condition every day.
- 13.4% of African-American kids have asthma, compared to around 7.4% of Caucasian kids with the condition.
- 9.8% of American women aged 18 or older suffer from the condition, compared to 5.4% of American men.
- The highest prevalence of clinical asthma was observed in Australia and Sweden .
- Its estimated that 80% of all asthmatics are clueless about how to use an inhalator.
- Smoke residues from cannabis can aggravate asthma symptoms.
- 87.1% of asthmatic patients report benefits of antifungal therapy.
What Asthma Treatment Options Are There
You have options to help manage your asthma. Your healthcare provider may prescribe medications to control symptoms. These include:
- Anti-inflammatory medicines: These medicines reduce swelling and mucus production in your airways. They make it easier for air to enter and exit your lungs. Your healthcare provider may prescribe them to take every day to control or prevent your symptoms.
- Bronchodilators: These medicines relax the muscles around your airways. The relaxed muscles let the airways move air. They also let mucus move more easily through the airways. These medicines relieve your symptoms when they happen.
- Biologic therapies for asthma when symptoms persist despite being on proper inhaler therapy.
You can take asthma medicines in several different ways. You may breathe in the medicines using a metered-dose inhaler, nebulizer or other inhaler. Your healthcare provider may prescribe oral medications that you swallow.
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% Of American Children And 77% Of American Adults Have Asthma
According to statistics derived from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, one in 13 people struggles with the condition. In fact, over 25 million American individuals of all ages have asthma. Unfortunately, the prevalence of the health condition in the United States has been steadily increasing since the 1980s in all gender, racial, and age groups.
How Common Is Asthma
- Approximately 25;million Americans have asthma. This equals to about 1 in 13 Americans, including 8;percent of adults and 7 percent of children.1
- About 20 million U.S. adults age 18 and over have asthma. 1
- Asthma is more common in adult women than adult men.1
- It is the leading chronic disease in children. 2 Currently, there are about 5.1 million children under the age of 18 with asthma. 1
- Asthma is more common in boys than girls.1
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How Do Rates Of Emergency Admission To Hospital For Asthma Vary Across The Uk 200812
Asthma accounts for 60,000 hospital;admissions and 200,000 bed days a;year. Compared with conditions such as;pneumonia and COPD, these figures are;low. But like mortality rates, they are too;high for such a manageable condition.
Its;also worth noting that many people with;asthma attend accident and emergency;units without needing admission, but still;adding to the burden on health services.
England: There were higher rates of emergency admission in the North East, North West, Yorkshire and the Humber and the West Midlands than in the UK generally.;There were lower admission rates in the East of England, the South East and South West.;
Notably more males were admitted in the North East, North West, West Midlands, and;London.
Scotland: The admission rate among women was higher than in the UK generally.
Wales: Admission rates were comparable to those for the UK generally.
Northern Ireland: There were lower admission rates for males and females compared with the UK generally.
Asthma hospital admission ratios, males and females, in each UK region, 200812
Relative risk of hospital admissions for asthma, by local authority district , 2010
You can find out how these figures were calculated.
Asthma Seriously Affects The Lives Of People In Massachusetts
- In Massachusetts, 73.7% of adults and 66.2% of children with current asthma were classified as having not well controlled or very poorly controlled asthma on average from 2006-2010.
- Among adults with very poorly controlled asthma, 40.7% reported cost was a barrier to care.
Figure 1 Level of Control among Massachusetts Children with Current Asthma, 2006-2010
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Reducing The Burden Of Asthma
Asthma cannot be cured, but good management with inhaled medications can control the disease and enable people with asthma to enjoy a normal, active life.
There are two main types of inhaler:
- bronchodilators , that open the air passages and relieve symptoms; and
- steroids , that reduce inflammation in the air passages. This improves asthma symptoms and reduces the risk of severe asthma attacks and death.
People with asthma may need to use their inhaler every day. Their treatment will depend on the frequency of symptoms and the different types of inhalers available.
It can be difficult to coordinate breathing using an inhaler especially for children and during emergency situations. Using a spacer device makes it easier to use an aerosol inhaler and helps the medicine to reach the lungs more effectively. A spacer is a plastic container with a mouthpiece or mask at one end, and a hole for the inhaler in the other. A homemade spacer, made from a 500-ml plastic bottle, can be as effective as a commercially-manufactured inhaler.;
Access to inhalers is a problem in many countries. In 2019, only half of people with asthma had access to a bronchodilator and less than one in five had access to a steroid inhaler in public primary health-care facilities in low-income countries .
Are There Disparities In Asthma Rates In Minnesota
The likelihood of having asthma differs by race/ethnicity.
- American Indian and African American middle/high school students are more likely than other students to have been diagnosed with asthma.6
There are significant differences in the rates of hospitalizations and emergency department visits for asthma by region of the state.
- Asthma hospitalization rates for children living in the Twin Cities metropolitan area are 67% higher than for children living in Greater Minnesota.
- Rates of ED visits for asthma for children living in the Twin Cities metro area are nearly twice as high as for children living in Greater Minnesota.
- In certain ZIP codes in the city of Minneapolis, hospitalization rates for asthma among children are 4 times higher than the statewide rate.4
There are also disparities in rates of deaths due to asthma in Minnesota.
- Asthma death rates are 4 times higher among African Americans and 2 times higher among Asian/Pacific Islanders than among whites.
- Among those who were under age 65 when they died, the asthma death rate for African Americans was 6 times higher than it was for whites.7
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Americans Between The Ages Of 4564 Account For 207% Of Work
According to statistics concerning occupational or work-related asthma, around 1.9 million cases of the condition among adult Americans were related to work. In fact, 15.7% of present adult asthma cases are work-related. The prevalence of the condition was highest among Americans in the social assistance and healthcare industries with 8.8%, while the educational services industry accounted for 8.2% of the cases.;
Which Racial Or Ethnic Groups Have Higher Asthma Rates
- See AAFAs groundbreaking research report on;Asthma Disparities in America.
- Racial and ethnic differences in asthma frequency, illness and death are highly connected with poverty, city air quality, indoor allergens, not enough patient education and poor health care.
- The rate of asthma and the prevalence of asthma episodes is highest among Black Americans.1
- Black children are three times as likely to have asthma compared to white children.1
- Compared to white Americans, Black Americans are five times more likely to visit the emergency department due to asthma.6
- Black Americans are nearly three times more likely to die from asthma than white Americans7
- When sex is factored in, Black females have the highest rate of fatality due to asthma. In 2019, Black women were three times more likely to die from asthma than white men.7
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Types Of Severe Asthma
There are two main categories of severe asthma Type-2 inflammation and Non-Type-2 inflammation. These categories are based on a persons response to treatment. Type-2 inflammation includes allergic asthma and eosinophilic asthma and Non-Type-2 inflammation includes non-eosinophilic asthma. For example, allergic asthma and e-asthma respond to treatment with inhaled corticosteroids and IgE -directed therapy or other biologics listed in the above table. Patients with Non-Type-2 inflammation, including non-eosinophilic asthma, generally do not respond well to inhaled corticosteroids. Allergic asthma and e-asthma have distinct biomarkers and treatment options available today. Treatments for non-eosinophilic asthma are currently being development.
Allergic asthma is caused by exposure to allergens such as pollen, pet dander, molds, etc. Most people diagnosed with allergic asthma will also have a diagnosis of hay fever or rhinitis. For these patients, exposure to allergens causes the bodys immune system to produce immunoglobulin E, an antibody that attaches to certain cells and causes them to release chemicals creating an allergic reaction. When this happens, common symptoms are sneezing, itchy/watery eyes, severe allergic reactions , and increased airway sensitivity.
Non-eosinophilic asthma includes neutrophilic, smooth-muscle mediated and mixed cells. People in this subgroup have few to no eosinophils in test results, and do not respond well to inhaled corticosteroids.
What Is The Impact Of Asthma On Disability And Premature Death
Burden of disease is a measure of healthloss attributable to specific diseases. The GBDstudy has used mortality statistics and healthsurvey data, where available, to estimate, formany countries of the world, two componentsof disease burden: Years of Life Lost due topremature death and Years of Life livedwith Disability . The latter quantifies boththe extent of disability and its duration. DisabilityAdjusted Life Years are the sum of YLL andYLD. The GBD study publishes new analyses everyfew years and the 2016 findings are the basis ofthe estimates cited below.
In 2016, asthma, across all ages, contributed23.7 million DALYs globally. This total burden ofdisease has remained unchanged since 1990,despite the substantial increase in worldpopulation over that time. Hence, the agestandardisedrate has decreased by 36% since1990. Globally, asthma ranked 28th among theleading causes of burden of disease and 27th inlow- and middle-income countries .
More than half of the global burdenattributable to asthma was due to 13.2 millionYLD. This represents a small increase in theage-standardised rate of YLD due to asthma since2006. In 2016, asthma ranked 16th in the leadingcauses of YLD globally.
Worldwide, there were 10.5 million YLLattributed to asthma-related premature deaths.This represents an age-standardised rate of 148·5YLL per 100,000 population, 26% lower in 2016compared to 2006. In 2016, asthma ranked 23rd and 31st among the leadingcauses of premature mortality .
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The Economic Burden Of Asthma
Asthma is an extremely costly disease, costing the United States $81.9 billion annually 13
The annual per-person medical costs for asthma are $3,266 annually 13.; These costs break down as follows:
- ;$1,830 for medications 13
Whats An Asthma Attack
When you breathe normally, muscles around your airways are relaxed, letting air move easily. During an asthma attack, three things can happen:
- Bronchospasm: The muscles around the airways constrict . When they tighten, it makes the airways narrow. Air cannot flow freely through constricted airways.
- Inflammation: The airway linings become swollen. Swollen airways dont let as much air in or out of the lungs.
- Mucus production: During the attack, your body creates more mucus. This thick mucus clogs airways.
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Asthma Facts And Figures
Asthma causes swelling of the airways. This results in narrowing of the airways that carry air from the nose and mouth to the lungs. Allergens or irritating things entering the lungs trigger asthma symptoms. Symptoms include trouble breathing, wheezing, coughing and tightness in the chest. Asthma can be deadly.
- There is no cure for asthma, but it can be managed with proper prevention of asthma attacks and treatment.
- More Americans than ever before have asthma. It is one of this countrys most common and costly diseases.
The Links Between Air Pollution And Childhood Asthma
Researchers have long linked asthma;a serious and life threatening chronic respiratory disease that affects the quality of life of more than 23 million Americans with exposure to air pollution. Air pollution can make asthma symptoms worse and trigger asthma attacks. The estimated six million children in the United States with asthma are especially vulnerable to air pollution.
EPA studies the link between air pollution and asthma so that action can be taken to reduce the health burden associated with the disease. Childhood asthma research at the Agency covers a variety of topics including the impact of certain air pollutants on asthma, how exposure to air pollution may contribute to asthma, and which children may be particularly vulnerable.
Three recent studies on childrens asthma are highlighted below.;
African American Adolescents are More Vulnerable to Air Pollution Than Other Children
This study reported that low levels of outdoor ozone were associated with respiratory changes and other outcomes in African American children with difficult-to-treat asthma, even when they used asthma therapies such as inhalers to modify the adverse effects of air pollutants.
The study concluded that ozone may impact at risk populations even at low concentrations and that the impact is more widespread than just respiratory outcomes.
Exposure to Coarse Particulate Matter Linked with Asthma in Children
Air Pollution May Impact DNA Associated with Asthma
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Asthma And Allergy Triggers
As the weather gets colder and more time is spent indoors, indoor asthma and allergy triggers are of growing concern. We also know that researchers have observed, in some studies, a link of seasonal and indoor allergies to the later development of asthma, added Dr. Bassett.
Indoor and outdoor trigger include: smoke pollution and strong odors, pet dander, mold, pollen, dust mites, exercise, pests like roaches and mice, colds and flus, certain foods, and changes in the weather.
California Air Resources Board
Asthma is a chronic lung disease that continues to be a health concern in California, the United States and many other countries around the world. Asthma is a condition in which an individuals airways narrow, swell and produce extra mucus. This can make breathing difficult and trigger coughing, wheezing and shortness of breath. Children and certain racial groups, especially African Americans and Native Americans, have experienced relatively greater increases in asthma prevalence. Low income individuals also experience higher rates of asthma.
In 2014, 13.8% of adults reported that they had ever been diagnosed with asthma and 8.1% said they still have asthma . Among children under age 18, 13.7% had lifetime asthma and 9.4% had current asthma. This translates to approximately 4 million adults and 1.2 million children in California who have been diagnosed with asthma, and 2.3 million adults and 851,000 children in California who have current asthma. The prevalence has not changed signicantly since 2001, though increases have been shown in earlier decades.
There are a number of organizations that provide information on asthma management as well as conducting surveillance on asthma outcomes in California and nationwide. More;Information
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